transport times and a resultant increase in survival rates of oligohaline organisms; and the decreased use globally of certain types of anti-fouling paints, such as those containing tributyltins (Hall, 1981; Weis and Cole, 1989; Carlton et al., 1995). The net result of these negative and positive influences on the diversity of fouling communities is not known.

Temporal considerations further hinder predictions of the relative roles of ballast versus other ship-mediated vectors. Fouling communities are transported to a "new" port with every visit of every ship; significant amounts of ballast water are released only by those vessels loading cargo, and different ports receive significantly different amounts of ballast water. On the other hand, for fouling communities to act as effective vectors of non-native species, the organisms involved must either reproduce in the short time a vessel is in port or must be dislodged and fall of the ship. The latter situation is less likely for organisms residing in the protected sea chest.


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