FIGURE 2-1 Typical ballast tank arrangements.

national and international requirements for proper maintenance of the trim and stability of the vessel at sea. The master of the ship is responsible for ensuring that all ballasting operations are executed in a safe manner, commensurate with prevailing conditions (see Box 2-2).

BALLAST CONDITIONS AT SEA

The major purposes of ballasting a vessel for a voyage are to increase its manageability (and safety), particularly under heavy weather conditions; control its draft and trim for maximum efficiency; and control its stability to ensure safe passage. Related factors that determine ballast conditions at sea are summarized below.

Heavy Weather Considerations

Ships must be deep enough in the water to ensure safe passage, particularly in heavy weather. If the bow of the ship is not deep enough, the ship's forefoot



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