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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The program described in this report is supported by Cooperative Agreement No. DTMA91-94-G-00003 between the Maritime Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the National Academy of Sciences; and Grant No. N00014-95-1-1205 between the Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research, and the NAS; and Grant No. NA56RG0142 between the Department of Commerce, NOAA, and the NAS; and Award No. S-OPRAQ-95-M-2148 between the U.S. Department of State and the NAS. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors and no official endorsement should be inferred.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Stemming the tide : controlling introductions of nonindigenous species by ships' ballast water/Committee on Ships' Ballast Operations, Marine Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-05537-7 (alk. paper)

1. Animal introduction. 2. Aquatic pests—Control. 3. Nonindigenous pests—Control. 4. Discharge of ballast water— Management. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Ships' Ballast Operations.

QL86.S88 1996

591.52'63—dc20 96-31920

CIP

Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America



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