indications for, 192-193

integrated psychosocial-pharmacologic, 194

legally coerced, 266-268

in managed care systems, 10, 222, 225, 227-228, 231-236

medical cost offsets, 242-243

medications for, 39-41, 70-71

modalities, 9

options, 194

outpatient, 194

patient compliance, 198

placement criteria, 242

of pregnant women, 213, 269-270

primary medical care in drug abuse programs, 205-207

psychosocial, 196-197

public vs. private settings, 228-231

recommendations for research, 9-10, 215

research accomplishments, 15, 192, 193

research opportunities, 202

significance of craving, 46-47

significance of motivational

research, 43-45

special populations, 211-212

in therapeutic communities, 194

treatment matching, 207-209

utilization, 193

vs. drug control strategies, 199-200

vs. punishment, 256-257

See also Pharmacotherapy

Treatment Alternatives to Street

Crime (TASC), 214, 266-267

Treatment Outcome Prospective Study, 197-198

Treatment Services Review, 202

Twelve-step programs, 194

U

Urinalysis, 113

Utilization of treatment resources, 193

confidentiality and, 268-270

managed care systems, 231-235

medical cost offsets, 242-243

V

Violence/violent behavior

alcohol linkages, 177-178

behavioral research, 47-48

cocaine linkages, 178-179

co-occurring psychiatric disorders and drug abuse, 180-182

drug abuse linkages, 176

in drug-related crimes, 176-177, 178

in drug trade, 176

drug use linkages, 8-9

opiate linkages, 178

as pharmacological effect of drugs, 177-180

as predictor of alcoholism, 122

research recommendations, 9, 182

Vulnerability to drug use, 48-49

Genetic basis, 75, 78, 119-120

Individual differences, 120-121

W

Withdrawal, 19, 37

behavioral research, 42-43

conditioned, 42

determinants of drug-seeking

behavior in, 66-67

drug antagonist therapies, 70-71

hypothalamic system in, 67

locus coeruleus model, 68-69

negative affective states in, 67

neurochemical substrate, 66-69

in newborns, 170

physical signs, 66-67

psychological signs, 66

Y

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 106



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