for a state survey for the BRFSS) and school-based surveys (e.g., for the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System) for data on adolescents; maternal smoking status is recorded on birth certificates, but the quality of the data needs to be evaluated.

  1. Proportion of the population age 18 and older who are obese.

    This indicator is included among the priority data needs to augment the consensus indicators recommended by CDC (1991) for use by all states and communities. Obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, some cancers, and conditions such as arthritis. It also generally reflects a combination of dietary factors and limited physical activity that are themselves associated with increased health risks. It has been estimated that 14 percent of all deaths in the United States are related to diet and activity patterns (McGinnis and Foege, 1993). Obesity can be measured in terms of the body mass index, which can be constructed from weight and height data (kg/m2). Field model domains: individual behavior, genetics, social environment, health care, health and function, and well-being. Data sources: community surveys (e.g., oversampling for a state survey for the BRFSS).

  2. Number and type of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards not met.

    This indicator is included in the consensus set recommended by CDC (1991) for use by all states and communities. Air quality can have a significant impact on health, particularly for those who have chronic respiratory conditions. Field model domains: disease, social environment, physical environment, and well-being. Data sources: state environmental quality agency; local air quality management agency.

  3. Proportion of assessed rivers, lakes and estuaries that support beneficial uses (e.g., fishing and swimming approved).

    This indicator is included among the priority data needs to augment the consensus indicators recommended by CDC (1991) for use by all states and communities. Pollution in a community's rivers, lakes, and estuaries may directly cause disease and also affect the well-being of the community. Field model domains: disease, individual behavior, social environment, physical environment, and well-being. Data sources: state environmental quality agency.



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