volved in the meetings, attendance was good at the St. Cloud and Rochester meetings (200-400 attendees), whereas the Duluth meeting had a lower turnout.

Another example of a community education effort was a 1-day seminar entitled "Managed Care: What Is at Stake for Older Adults?" held on October 30, 1995, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seminar, cosponsored by the Leadership in an Aging Society Program of the Duke University Long-Term Care Resources Program and the North Carolina Division of Aging, was attended by 100 older adult leaders, state officials, and other interested stakeholders. The topics discussed included quality, access, financing, and long-term care and included perspectives from other states.

Health Plans

Health plans extensively use community meetings as a way to interest Medicare beneficiaries in their HMO product. Often, these meetings are held at public sites such as restaurants or hotels. Plan representatives give a prepared presentation about their HMO product, often supplemented by print materials and in some cases a videotape. Representatives are also available to answer participants' questions. Some plans indicated that they use current plan enrollees in these community presentations as the best "ambassadors" for their program.

One-on-One Counseling
Public Agencies

As mentioned previously, Medicare beneficiaries have access in every state to an Information, Counseling and Assistance (ICA) program. In addition to telephone hotline counseling, the primary mode of delivering services to Medicare beneficiaries is through one-on-one counseling. In such a counseling session, the beneficiary usually goes to a central meeting place, such as a senior center, Social Security office, library, or Area Agency on Aging to discuss his or her questions or concerns with a trained counselor. According to a 1994 evaluation (McCormack et al., 1994), three fourths of all counties nation-



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