Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OF OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OF OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a report review committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The project was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under contract no. 68D50054. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 96-69352 International Standard Book No. 0-309-05545-8 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, June 1996 Second Printing, May 1997

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OF OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS BAILUS WALKER (Chair), Howard University Cancer Center, Washington, D.C. ROBERT C. BORDEN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. WILLIAM S. CAIN, University of California, San Diego, Calif. STEVEN D. COLOME, Integrated Environmental Services, Irvine, Calif. DAVID B. COULTAS, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mex. W. ROBERT EPPERLY, Catalytica Advanced Technologies, Inc., Mountain View, Calif. CHARLES H. HOBBS, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mex. SIMONE HOCHGREB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. JOHN H. JOHNSON, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Mich. DOUGLAS R. LAWSON, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo. ERNEST E. MCCONNELL, Raleigh, N.C. SANDRA N. MOHR, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. PHILLIP S. MYERS, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corp., Arlington, Va. DONNA SPIEGELMAN, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass.

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels Staff CAROL A. MACZKA, Project Director and Program Director, Toxicology and Risk Assessment Program RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director, Environmental Sciences and Engineering Program JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Project Assistant RUTH P. DANOFF, Senior Project Assistant KATHRINE IVERSON, Library Assistant Sponsor U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. MICHAEL J. BEAN, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcom Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, N.Y. EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ALLAN H. CONNEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. GEORGE P. DASTON, The Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colo. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. RAYMOND C. LOEHR, The University of Texas, Austin, Tex. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. DAVID P. RALL, Washington, D.C. LESLIE A. REAL, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. KRISTIN SHRADER-FRECHETTE, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. GERALD VAN BELLE, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C.

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Ill. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University School of Medicine, Mass. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Penn. JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, Mass. EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, Calif. EMIL A. PFITZER, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Hackensack, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatham, Mass. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring Synthetic and Natural Substances (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (Urinary Toxicology (1995), Immunotoxicology (1992),Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992), Pulmonary Toxicology (1989), Reproductive Toxicology (1989)) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) These reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242; (202) 334-3313

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels PREFACE In response to public concerns over the use of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE)-oxygenated fuels in motor vehicles, a comprehensive assessment of such fuels was drafted by the federal government under the direction of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The assessment addressed public health, air quality, water quality, fuel economy, and engine performance. This National Research Council report independently reviews the federal assessment in terms of scientific credibility, comprehensiveness, and internal consistency of the information presented. We hope that OSTP, in preparing its final report, will provide specific responses to the conclusions and recommendations provided in this report. As part of its information gathering, our committee heard presentations from the principal authors of the various documents that composed the interagency report. Carleton J. Howard, of the U.S. Department of Commerce, summarized the document on Air Quality Benefits; Arthur C. Upton, chairman of the Health Effects Institute's Oxygenates Evaluation Committee, and Mary White, of

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, discussed the documents assessing the potential health risks associated with oxygenated gasoline; John S. Zogorski, of the U.S. Department of the Interior, discussed the document on fuel oxygenates and water quality; and David J. Kortum, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presented the document on fuel economy and engine performance issues. Robert T. Watson, associate director for environment, OSTP, provided the committee with an overview of the interagency effort. Two representatives of EPA, the sponsor of this National Research Council study, provided useful information and perspectives for the committee: William H. Farland, director, national center for environmental assessment, and Mary D. Nichols, assistant administrator for air and radiation. The committee also heard presentations by Larry S. Andrews, ARCO Chemical Company; Robert G. Tardiff, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.; and Bernard D. Goldstein and Paul J. Lioy, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute. We are grateful for the assistance of the National Research Council staff in the preparation of this report. In particular, the committee wishes to acknowledge Carol A. Maczka, project director, whose hard work and expertise were most effective in bringing this report to completion. Also, Raymond A. Wassel, program director for environmental sciences and engineering, and James J. Zucchetto, director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, provided the committee with outstanding technical assistance in the preparation of this report. Other staff members who contributed to this effort are Paul Gilman, executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences; James J. Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; and Catherine M. Kubik, senior project assistant.

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels Last, but by no means least, the work of all the members of the committee is greatly appreciated. Bailus Walker, Jr., Chair Committee on Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   17     Interagency Report   19     Charge to the National Research Council Committee   20     Committee Approach   21     Structure of the Report   21 2   AIR QUALITY, FUEL ECONOMY, AND ENGINE PERFORMANCE   23     FTP Emissions Data for Individual Vehicles   34     On-Road Emissions Data from Vehicle Fleets   35     Low-Temperature Vehicle-Emissions Studies   37     Ambient Studies   37     Discrepancies Between Model Results and Observations   40     Copollutant Effects of Oxygenated Fuels   41     Atmospheric Chemistry   45     Fuel Economy, Engine Performance, and Program Costs   46     Modern Technology   48     Overall Conclusions on Air Quality, Fuel Economy, and Engine Performance   49     Overall Recommendations on Air Quality, Fuel Economy, and Engine Performance   51

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels 3   WATER QUALITY   53     Overview of Water Quality in the Interagency Report   54     Sections of the Interagency Report Requiring Clarification or Revision   58     Discussion of Interagency Report Recommendations   60     Committee's Conclusions   64     Research Needs   64 4   HUMAN EXPOSURE   67     Data Reviewed by the Interagency Report   68     Committee Critique   69     Conclusions   73     Research Needs   74 5   POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF OXYGENATES   75     Metabolism and Disposition   76     Short-term Health Effects   79     Reproductive and Developmental Effects   108     Long-term Health Effects   109 6   POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF OTHER POLLUTANTS   117     Committee Critique   118     Conclusions   119     Research Needs   120 7   RISK ASSESSMENT   123     Synopsis of the Two Reports   123     General Comparison of the Two Reports with Respect to Risk Issues   132     Conclusions   138

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Toxicological and Performance Aspects of Oxygenated Motor Vehicle Fuels     REFERENCES   141     APPENDIX   151

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