Still, at most, women make up only about 33 percent of the academic labor force in any field. With the proportionally greater entry of women than men into academia in recent years, the average career age of women is less than that of men. This accounts for a substantial amount of the greater representation of men among those with tenure and those with the rank of full professor. However, controls for gender differences in age and field do not eliminate the greater presence of men among those on the tenure track, with tenure, or promoted to full professor. While the presence of women in academia has shown notable improvements, women remain underrepresented in academic science and engineering.

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