from outcomes that are the result of men’s cumulative advantage over women in science.

In summary, the male/female earnings gap in science is not fully explained by the individual or contextual factors that have so far been measured. Even analyses that methodically control for measurable differences between women and men and attempt to measure discrimination directly leave a large residual of the wage gap unexplained. While some of the remaining differences may be due to measurement error and it is possible that some control variables are missing, there appear to be differences that remain. Clearly, more research is necessary—not only on faculty salaries but also on gender differences in other employment sectors—in order to assess the effects of discrimination against women at each step in the stratification process.

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