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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Bibliography Adelman, Clifford. 1991. Women at Thirty Something. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Ahern, Nancy C., and Elizabeth L.Scott. 1981. Career Outcomes in a Matched Sample of Men and Women Ph.Ds: An Analytical Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Allison, Paul D., and J.Scott Long. 1987. Interuniversity mobility of academic scientists. American Sociological Review 52:643–652. Allison, Paul D., and J.Scott Long. 1990. Departmental effects on scientific productivity. American Sociological Review 55:469–478. American Association of University Women Educational Foundation. 1992. How Schools Shortchange Girls-The AAUW Report. New York: Marlowe and Co. Applebome, Peter. 1996. Publishers’ squeeze making tenure elusive. Pp. A1, A12 in The New York Times. New York. Astin, Helen S. 1969. The Woman Doctorate in America: Origins, Career and Family. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Astin, Helen S., and Alan E.Bayer. 1979. Pervasive gender differences in the academic reward system: Scholarship, marriage and what else? Pp. 221–229 in Academic Rewards in Higher Education, edited by D.R.Lewis and W.E.Becker. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co. Barber, Leslie A. 1995. U.S. women in science and engineering, 1960–1990: Progress toward equity? Journal of Higher Education 66(2):213–234. Barbezat, Debra. 1988. Gender differences in the academic reward system. Pp. 138–164 in Academic Labor Markets and Careers, edited by D.W.Breneman and T.I.K.Youn. New York: Falmer Press. Bayer, Alan E., and Helen S.Astin. 1968. Sex differences in academic rank and salary among science doctorates in teaching. Journal of Human Resources 3:191–201. Bayer, Alan E., and Helen S.Astin. 1975. Gender differentials in the academic reward system. Science 188:796–802.

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