Becker, William E., and Robert K.Toutkoushian. 1995. The Measurement and cost of removing unexplained gender differences in faculty salaries. Economics of Education Review 14:209–220.

Bellas, Marcia L., and Barbara F.Reskin. 1994. On comparable worth. Academe September-October: 83–85.

Bellas, Marcia L. 1993. Faculty salaries: Still a cost of being female? Social Science Quarterly 74:62–75.

Bellas, Marcia L. 1994. Comparable worth in academia: The effects on faculty salaries of the sex Ccomposition and labor-market conditions of academic cisciplines. American Sociological Review 59:807–821.

Bellas, Marcia L. 1997. Disciplinary differences in faculty salaries: Does gender bias play a role? Journal of Higher Education 68:299–321.

Bergman, Barbara R. 1974. Occupational segregation, wages, and profits when employers discriminate by race or sex. Eastern Economic Journal 1:103–110.

Berryman, S.E. 1983. Who Will Do Science? New York: Rockefeller Foundation.

Bettelheim, Bruno. 1965. “The commitment required of a woman entering a scientific profession in present day American society. Pp. 3–19 in Women and the scientific professions: The M.I.T. Symposium on American Women in Science and Engineering, edited by J.A. Mattfeld, C.G.Van Aken, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Association of Women Students. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Blau, Peter M., and Otis Dudley Duncan. 1967. The American Occupational Structure. New York: Wiley.

BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics). 1999. Information obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Internet site at Visited March 12, 1999.

Bowen, Howard R., and Jack H.Schuster. 1986. American Professors: A National Resource Imperiled. New York: Oxford.

Bowen, William G., and Neil L.Rudenstine. 1992. In Pursuit of the Ph.D. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Caplow, Theodore, and Reece J.McGee. 1958. The Academic Marketplace. New York: Basic Books.

Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. 1973, 1976, 1987, 1994. A Classification of Institutions of Higher Education: A Technical Report. Berkeley, CA: The Carnegie Commission.

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. 1975. Making Affirmative Action Work in Higher Education: An Analysis of Institutional and Federal Policies with Recommendations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 1994. Carnegie Foundation National Faculty Surveys. Princeton, NJ: Opinion Research Corporation.

Cartter, A.M. 1971. Scientific manpower for 1970–1985. Science 172:132–140.

Catsambis, Sophia. 1994. The Path to math: Gender and racial-ethnic differences in mathematics participation from middle school to high school. Sociology of Education 67:199– 215.

CEEWISE (Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering), National Research Council. 1983. Climbing the Ladder: An Update on the Status of Doctoral Women Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Centra, John A. 1974. Women, Men and the Doctorate. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Chamberlain, Mariam K. (ed.) 1988. Women in Academe: Progress and Prospects. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Clark, B.R. 1987. The Academic Life: Small Words, Different Worlds. Princeton. NJ: Princeton University Press.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement