APPENDIX B
Tables



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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers APPENDIX B Tables

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-1 Total Number of Ph.D.s in the Labor Force, by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Biomedical 317 5 870 10 1373 94 1913 205 Chemical 5427 19 7497 43 11004 322 11879 714 Electrical 7962 21 10375 68 14438 249 19513 704 Industrial 815 5 1312 18 1304 107 2110 307 Materials Science 178 0 691 14 1768 153 3558 521 Other 18743 77 26584 269 38595 927 43552 1996 Total 33442 127 47329 422 68482 1852 82525 4447 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Computer Science 571 33 1428 104 3950 484 6942 1133 Probability & Statistics 2399 191 4003 434 5655 1066 6525 1479 Mathematics 9883 766 12661 1079 15995 1698 17100 2204 Total 12853 90 18092 1617 25600 3248 30567 4816 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Astronomy 1023 99 1627 127 2478 240 2866 224 Physics 18944 395 23792 628 30319 1236 33781 2058 Chemistry 34784 2198 41278 3058 49102 5814 52841 8478 Oceanography 583 10 922 46 1516 167 1724 310 Geosciences 6024 162 8259 376 11981 1083 13288 1790 Total 61358 2864 75878 4235 95396 8540 104500 12860

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Agricultural 10009 163 13750 399 19273 1704 21059 2906 Medical 35416 6356 47014 9979 64361 19499 80407 29511 Biological 5013 600 7369 1395 13121 6295 8345 8570 Total 50438 7119 68133 11773 96755 27498 109811 40987 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Psychology 18964 4942 28766 9975 43169 24400 47473 34677 Anthropology 1378 343 2528 1026 4101 2374 4727 3305 Economics 9755 603 12175 1102 16782 2185 16809 2737 Sociology 4910 1134 7177 2222 9254 4330 8745 5024 Other 12289 1385 19156 3133 26474 7479 21270 6243 Total 47296 8407 69802 17458 99780 40768 99024 51986

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-2 Number of Full-Time Scientists and Engineers, by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Biomedical 307 2 778 10 1314 84 1729 135 Chemical 4835 13 6696 33 9410 257 9574 504 Electrical 7317 17 9578 53 12595 213 16422 601 Industrial 720 4 1007 12 901 75 1590 279 Materials Science 146 0 599 12 1587 138 3304 366 Other 16883 46 23860 218 32631 791 36394 1704 Total 30208 82 42518 338 58438 1558 69013 3589 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Computer Science 540 30 1330 92 3670 397 6501 933 Probability & Statistics 2233 130 3710 318 5067 798 5165 1175 Mathematics 8866 517 10871 780 13610 1304 14045 1620 Total 11639 677 15911 1190 22347 2499 25711 3728 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Astronomy 930 64 1531 89 2310 175 2578 202 Physics 16424 220 20603 427 25577 982 26977 1473 Chemistry 28936 1236 34990 2105 39788 4426 39773 6251 Oceanography 523 6 888 37 1336 132 1537 212 Geosciences 5355 111 7287 292 9857 809 10508 1367 Total 52168 1637 65299 2950 78868 6524 81373 9505

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Agricultural 8766 86 12093 297 15569 1354 15688 2053 Medical 30916 4131 41403 7218 54025 14699 63815 22452 Biological 4371 381 6724 1078 11490 4955 5595 5380 Total 44053 4598 60220 8593 81084 21008 85098 29885 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Psychology 16048 3060 24690 7005 34961 16818 36317 22833 Anthropology 1226 246 2193 756 2914 1441 3419 2283 Economics 7359 376 9261 781 11907 1654 11659 2063 Sociology 4018 753 5649 1592 6575 2717 6255 3536 Other 9434 778 14058 1820 18501 4251 14633 4218 Total 38085 5213 55851 11954 74858 26881 72283 34933

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-3 Labor Force Participation Status by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .931 .695 .909 .818 .897 .848 .906 .813 Full Time out of Science .047 .042 .060 .070 .073 .061 .046 .043 Part Time .012 .136 .021 .061 .021 .063 .029 .066 Seeking Work .008 .051 .005 .022 .006 .011 .011 .039 Not Seeking Work .003 .076 .005 .029 .002 .016 .009 .039 n 32443 118 46765 413 65149 1838 76200 4416 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .947 .765 .905 .784 .910 .800 .908 .795 Full Time out of Science .029 .048 .066 .064 .068 .080 .042 .050 Part Time .008 .123 .021 .083 .016 .078 .030 .108 Seeking Work .013 .018 .003 .019 .003 .010 .009 .006 Not Seeking Work .003 .045 .005 .049 .002 .033 .012 .041 n 11191 771 15684 1335 22038 2580 26137 3891 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .898 .641 .897 .732 .903 .799 .872 .774 Full Time out of Science .066 .069 .070 .072 .068 .070 .063 .084 Part Time .018 .154 .023 .103 .020 .070 .041 .055 Seeking Work .014 .054 .008 .030 .006 .020 .012 .022 Not Seeking Work .004 .082 .002 .063 .003 .041 .012 .065 n 58068 2554 72808 4029 87354 8164 93274 12285

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .933 .744 .925 .779 .913 .803 .853 .759 Full Time out of Science .039 .048 .045 .044 .060 .067 .091 .111 Part Time .019 .105 .020 .087 .017 .080 .032 .066 Seeking Work .006 .039 .008 .031 .007 .015 .012 .014 Not Seeking Work .003 .064 .003 .059 .003 .035 .011 .050 n 47218 6176 65137 11027 88785 26152 99706 39379 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .870 .697 .832 .713 .810 .685 .796 .694 Full Time out of Science .098 .081 .125 .101 .144 .122 .132 .103 Part Time .024 .164 .030 .128 .036 .148 .059 .159 Seeking Work .007 .031 .008 .025 .008 .019 .006 .008 Not Seeking Work .002 .028 .004 .032 .002 .026 .008 .036 n 43793 7480 67100 16761 92385 39230 90829 50313

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-4 1973 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort   1940 Ph.D.s 1950 Ph.D.s 1960 Ph.D.s Total Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .889 .667 .919 .444 .942 .745 .934 .695 Full Time out of Science .072 .000 .063 .222 .039 .011 .047 .042 Part Time .028 .000 .009 .222 .009 .128 .010 .136 Seeking Work .008 .000 .008 .111 .007 .043 .008 .051 Not Seeking Work .003 .333 .001 .000 .002 .074 .002 .076 n 2174 6 6667 18 23032 94 31873 118 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .963 .732 .966 .817 .948 .761 .953 .768 Full Time out of Science .023 .070 .028 .063 .028 .042 .028 .049 Part Time .007 .127 .000 .079 .005 .122 .004 .115 Seeking Work .007 .014 .006 .000 .015 .025 .012 .019 Not Seeking Work .000 .056 .000 .040 .004 .050 .003 .049 n 828 71 2326 126 7487 523 10641 720 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .871 .596 .911 .662 .915 .656 .907 .649 Full Time out of Science .093 .135 .067 .089 .053 .048 .064 .07 Part Time .016 .175 .007 .132 .014 .149 .012 .149 Seeking Work .015 .023 .014 .043 .014 .070 .014 .057 Not Seeking Work .005 .070 .001 .075 .004 .077 .003 .075 n 8579 342 15409 562 29534 1509 53522 2413

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .905 .719 .932 .737 .953 .759 .941 .75 Full Time out of Science .054 .091 .048 .062 .028 .036 .037 .047 Part Time .030 .099 .013 .094 .010 .107 .013 .103 Seeking Work .008 .029 .003 .036 .006 .044 .006 .041 Not Seeking Work .003 .062 .003 .072 .002 .054 .003 .059 n 5580 615 13076 1280 25263 3939 43919 5834 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .815 .708 .861 .677 .894 .709 .876 .702 Full Time out of Science .144 .101 .111 .093 .079 .073 .095 .079 Part Time .034 .174 .021 .178 .017 .156 .020 .162 Seeking Work .005 .009 .005 .031 .009 .034 .007 .031 Not Seeking Work .003 .009 .003 .021 .001 .028 .002 .025 n 4274 576 12433 1536 25439 5130 42146 7242

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-5 1979 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort   1950 Ph.D.s 1960 Ph.D.s 1970 Ph.D.s Total Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .868 .769 .902 .625 .930 .857 .914 .822 Full Time out of Science .079 .000 .071 .089 .047 .070 .058 .071 Part Time .032 .231 .023 .143 .013 .041 .018 .061 Seeking Work .003 .000 .002 .071 .007 .015 .005 .022 Not Seeking Work .018 .000 .002 .071 .003 .018 .004 .024 n 4971 13 15127 56 25880 342 45978 411 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .884 .762 .918 .765 .907 .809 .908 .796 Full Time out of Science .084 .143 .068 .088 .061 .043 .066 .060 Part Time .027 .060 .008 .078 .023 .081 .019 .079 Seeking Work .000 .012 .000 .000 .005 .028 .003 .020 Not Seeking Work .005 .024 .006 .068 .004 .04 .005 .045 n 1504 84 5055 294 8533 906 15092 1284 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .865 .687 .902 .683 .932 .780 .909 .744 Full Time out of Science .103 .118 .070 .101 .047 .051 .066 .072 Part Time .024 .089 .017 .126 .010 .078 .015 .091 Seeking Work .005 .016 .010 .034 .008 .034 .008 .032 Not Seeking Work .003 .091 .001 .056 .003 .057 .002 .061 n 12911 451 23403 968 31363 2402 67677 3821

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .900 .668 .928 .742 .944 .824 .932 .791 Full Time out of Science .068 .104 .051 .043 .032 .033 .044 .042 Part Time .018 .076 .013 .141 .012 .060 .013 .080 Seeking Work .010 .061 .007 .023 .008 .031 .008 .032 Not Seeking Work .004 .091 .000 .050 .004 .051 .003 .054 n 10777 953 18451 2446 33295 7210 62523 10609 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .797 .682 .835 .720 .845 .721 .835 .719 Full Time out of Science .151 .134 .130 .113 .115 .094 .124 .100 Part Time .046 .140 .024 .117 .026 .126 .028 .125 Seeking Work .001 .016 .008 .018 .011 .028 .008 .025 Not Seeking Work .005 .028 .003 .031 .004 .030 .004 .030 n 9775 900 17372 2955 38455 12507 65602 16362

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-6 1989 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort   1960 Ph.D.s 1970 Ph.D.s 1980 Ph.D.s Total Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .870 .714 .884 .796 .943 .867 .902 .848 Full Time out of Science .107 .125 .081 .097 .044 .050 .074 .062 Part Time .015 .107 .025 .077 .007 .057 .016 .062 Seeking Work .003 .036 .010 .011 .003 .011 .006 .011 Not Seeking Work .005 .018 .000 .019 .003 .016 .002 .016 n 14213 56 25783 362 22368 1415 62364 1833 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .899 .754 .917 .809 .929 .812 .917 .804 Full Time out of Science .078 .119 .070 .078 .059 .069 .068 .078 Part Time .018 .077 .007 .071 .010 .079 .011 .076 Seeking Work .003 .021 .003 .007 .002 .009 .003 .010 Not Seeking Work .002 .028 .002 .034 .000 .032 .001 .032 n 4923 285 8846 970 7197 1270 20966 2525 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .896 .746 .895 .782 .939 .832 .910 .807 Full Time out of Science .076 .099 .085 .086 .041 .049 .068 .066 Part Time .025 .088 .012 .082 .007 .054 .014 .067 Seeking Work .001 .010 .005 .014 .010 .026 .005 .020 Not Seeking Work .002 .057 .003 .036 .002 .039 .002 .040 n 21906 879 32027 2420 25329 4528 79262 7827

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .909 .705 .901 .779 .940 .838 .918 .808 Full Time out of Science .073 .108 .075 .087 .037 .047 .060 .065 Part Time .013 .145 .010 .087 .014 .063 .012 .078 Seeking Work .002 .010 .011 .014 .005 .018 .007 .016 Not Seeking Work .003 .033 .002 .033 .004 .034 .003 .034 n 16330 2111 34684 8078 31891 15359 82905 25548 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .801 .696 .823 .661 .818 .698 .817 .686 Full Time out of Science .156 .143 .145 .150 .142 .105 .145 .122 Part Time .035 .128 .024 .131 .027 .158 .027 .147 Seeking Work .005 .011 .007 .017 .013 .021 .009 .019 Not Seeking Work .003 .021 .002 .041 .000 .019 .002 .027 n 15764 2553 38771 12921 32248 23054 86783 38528

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-7 1995 Labor Force Participation Status, by Sex, Field, and Cohort   1970 Ph.D.s 1980 Ph.D.s 1990 Ph.D.s Total Engineering Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .874 .864 .929 .803 .952 .811 .918 .813 Full Time out of Science .069 .000 .042 .041 .025 .050 .046 .043 Part Time .031 .089 .012 .065 .010 .064 .018 .066 Seeking Work .011 .047 .015 .059 .010 .027 .012 .040 Not Seeking Work .015 .000 .003 .032 .002 .047 .007 .038 n 21947 361 23688 1480 19655 2553 65290 4394 Mathematical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .900 .794 .927 .698 .909 .911 .911 .801 Full Time out of Science .053 .031 .028 .093 .052 .024 .044 .052 Part Time .034 .096 .021 .176 .021 .045 .026 .107 Seeking Work .004 .026 .009 .000 .015 .000 .009 .006 Not Seeking Work .009 .054 .015 .034 .004 .020 .010 .033 n 8396 897 7508 1416 6179 1389 22083 3702 Physical Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .875 .702 .917 .769 .894 .830 .895 .780 Full Time out of Science .076 .150 .044 .089 .052 .051 .059 .087 Part Time .025 .049 .013 .051 .030 .052 .022 .051 Seeking Work .011 .015 .013 .011 .016 .034 .013 .021 Not Seeking Work .013 .083 .013 .079 .009 .033 .012 .062 n 30327 2267 25962 4753 15716 4474 72005 11494

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .848 .733 .886 .75 .892 .792 .873 .762 Full Time out of Science .104 .114 .09 .116 .076 .105 .092 .112 Part Time .019 .089 .007 .067 .015 .046 .013 .064 Seeking Work .012 .011 .010 .014 .014 .016 .012 .014 Not Seeking Work .016 .053 .006 .053 .003 .040 .009 .048 n 32398 7809 32230 15867 18892 13797 83520 37473 Social/Behavioral Sciences Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Full Time in Science .808 .671 .814 .703 .813 .705 .811 .696 Full Time out of Science .140 .125 .133 .098 .134 .091 .136 .102 Part Time .041 .158 .039 .156 .039 .162 .039 .158 Seeking Work .003 .007 .009 .005 .011 .009 .007 .007 Not Seeking Work .009 .039 .006 .040 .003 .033 .007 .037 n 33058 11125 29532 21113 13966 15578 76556 47816

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-8 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Sex and Year of Survey 1989 No Job Available No Need to Work Family Obligations n Men .296 .527 .047 7917 Women .187 .319 .470 8573 1995 No Job Available No Need to Work Family Obligations n Men .246 .316 .042 15377 Women .188 .416 .518 11992 TABLE B-9 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Cohort, Sex, and Year of Survey   1989 Older Middle Younger Men No Job .312 .375 .470 No Need .519 .455 .300 Family .075 .055 .043 N 1561 2232 1694 Women No Job .212 .179 .189 No Need .488 .348 .257 Family .203 .466 .539 N 730 2656 4887   1995 Older Middle Younger Men No Job .308 .475 .577 No Need .282 .221 .212 Family .060 .112 .023 N 3655 2137 1630 Women No Job .198 .160 .236 No Need .462 .432 .354 Family .388 .629 .549 N 2678 4948 3614

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-10 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, Field, Sex, and Year of Survey   Engineering Mathematical Sciences Physical Sciences Life Sciences Social/Behavioral Sciences 1989 Men No Job .285 .102 .355 .371 .257 No Need .515 .625 .475 .454 .581 Family .042 .050 .058 .037 .048 N 1345 323 1729 1362 3158 Women No Job .181 .193 .222 .239 .164 No Need .060 .278 .258 .259 .354 Family .724 .503 .508 .456 .465 N 116 187 563 2032 5675 1995 Men No Job .302 .197 .324 .162 .225 No Need .328 .432 .291 .281 .335 Family .042 .028 .023 .043 .057 N 2193 773 3822 3226 5363 Women No Job .366 .362 .202 .229 .157 No Need .414 .298 .331 .430 .425 Family .493 .431 .432 .487 .540 N 292 420 673 2591 8016

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-11 Reasons for Part-Time Employment, by Field, Cohort, Sex, and Year of Survey   Older Middle Younger Men Women Men Women Men Women 1989 Engineering No Job .248 .833 .352 .000 .503 .175 No Need .371 .000 .486 .179 .252 .025 Family .190 .167 .000 .821 .112 .750 N 210 6 640 28 143 80 Mathematics No Job .182 .200 .000 .215 .246 .174 No Need .477 .350 .552 .369 .261 .163 Family .000 .450 .448 .415 .043 .609 N 88 20 29 65 69 92 Physical Sciences No Job .517 .338 .499 .161 .538 .230 No Need .383 .442 .298 .327 .321 .071 Family .083 .182 .100 .528 .011 .690 N 540 77 379 199 184 239 Life Sciences No Job .173 .225 .356 .240 .713 .242 No Need .631 .376 .413 .247 .226 .191 Family .000 .281 .054 .479 .041 .544 N 214 306 315 691 442 937 Social/ Behavioral Sciences No Job .202 .159 .358 .158 .343 .172 No Need .684 .623 .512 .393 .345 .295 Family .063 .118 .063 .449 .040 .520 N 509 321 869 1673 856 3539 1995 Engineering No Job .308 .375 .633 .281 .610 .415 No Need .375 .125 .076 .500 .346 .421 Family .104 .625 .080 .677 .000 .360 N 672 32 275 96 205 164 Mathematics No Job .256 .302 .076 .378 .515 .516 No Need .463 .465 .335 .341 .400 .000 Family .060 .221 .000 .586 .038 .161 N 285 86 158 249 130 62 Physical Sciences No Job .509 .196 .762 .128 .741 .343 No Need .196 .723 .053 .370 .211 .197 Family .066 .438 .062 .716 .000 .292 N 745 112 341 243 464 233 Life Sciences No Job .291 .266 .619 .182 .469 .327 No Need .180 .405 .164 .476 .197 .385 Family .029 .350 .044 .627 .114 .512 N 611 692 226 1071 290 633 Social/ Behavioral Sciences No Job .214 .162 .378 .136 .495 .185 No Need .291 .473 .303 .428 .126 .365 Family .050 .404 .164 .625 .000 .603 N 1342 1756 1137 3289 541 2522

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-12 Predicted Probabilities of Working, by Familial Status and Year of Survey. Based on Multinomial Logit Analyses of Labor Force Participation Status   Full Time in Science Full Time Outside Science Part Time Seeking Work Not Seeking Work Men 1979 Single .894 .053 .029 .017 .008 Married .920 .057 .016 .005 .002 Older Children .927 .058 .010 .004 .001 Younger Children .921 .060 .015 .003 .001 1989 Single .888 .075 .019 .012 .006 Married .911 .070 .012 .005 .002 Older Children .920 .069 .006 .004 .001 Younger Children .925 .061 .010 .003 .001 1995 Single .854 .085 .024 .023 .014 Married .907 .064 .015 .009 .006 Older Children .916 .061 .011 .008 .004 Younger Children .914 .061 .011 .010 .005   Full Time in Science Full Time Outside Science Part Time Seeking Work Not Seeking Work Women 1979 Single .837 .083 .054 .016 .011 Married .770 .065 .100 .030 .035 Older Children .674 .058 .169 .027 .071 Younger Children .559 .051 .198 .044 .148 1989 Single .860 .088 .034 .011 .008 Married .804 .081 .077 .017 .021 Older Children .697 .074 .152 .017 .061 Younger Children .642 .061 .192 .019 .087 1995 Single .822 .115 .037 .013 .013 Married .789 .096 .067 .011 .037 Older Children .714 .089 .124 .010 .062 Younger Children .646 .068 .167 .013 .106

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-13 1979 Mean Work Experience, by Sex, Year of Ph.D., and Marital Status   Men Women Total Single Married without Children Children at Home Total Single Married without Children Cat Home hildren Ph.D. Year. Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n 57 21.9 2704 21.7 293 21.9 1352 21.9 1059 20.7 199 21.8 91 20.9 68 17.6 40 58 20.6 4115 20.4 428 20.7 1330 20.7 2357 18.8 268 20.6 122 18.7 58 16.3 88 59 19.7 4144 18.7 496 19.9 1352 19.7 2296 17.6 273 19.6 98 18.2 58 15.6 117 60 18.8 4439 18.6 485 18.9 1055 18.8 2899 16.9 300 17.9 164 17.6 59 14.2 77 61 17.7 5304 17.8 607 17.6 1296 17.8 3401 16.1 326 17.5 161 17.6 75 12.3 90 62 16.4 5282 16.0 544 16.9 1201 16.3 3537 15.2 391 16.9 155 16.7 81 12.6 155 63 15.6 5886 14.9 453 15.7 1044 15.6 4389 13.6 563 14.7 215 15.4 100 12.0 248 64 14.6 6951 14.7 746 14.3 1123 14.7 5082 13.2 557 14.3 195 13.0 115 12.3 247 65 13.7 7657 13.6 770 13.8 1223 13.6 5664 12.3 699 13.4 261 13.1 129 10.9 309 66 12.8 9343 12.8 1335 12.9 1544 12.7 6464 11.2 863 12.4 288 12.1 156 10.0 419 67 11.8 9417 11.7 880 11.9 1302 11.8 7235 10.2 1022 11.5 343 11.6 147 8.9 532 68 10.7 10146 10.9 1410 10.8 1033 10.7 7703 9.4 1044 10.2 388 10.6 194 8.3 462 69 9.6 11793 9.4 1829 9.6 1370 9.7 8594 8.6 1246 9.0 421 9.0 302 7.9 523 70 8.7 12846 8.5 2188 8.8 1543 8.7 9115 7.9 1339 8.4 508 8.4 273 7.2 558 71 7.7 14044 7.5 1904 7.6 2017 7.8 10123 7.3 1674 7.6 503 7.7 439 6.8 732 72 6.7 13066 6.5 1907 6.7 2006 6.8 9153 6.2 2022 6.3 709 6.3 529 6.0 784 73 5.6 11630 5.4 1725 5.4 1789 5.7 8116 5.4 1937 5.7 647 5.4 448 5.2 842 74 4.8 11892 4.7 2318 4.7 2334 4.9 7240 4.5 2216 4.7 927 4.5 505 4.3 784 75 3.8 11037 3.8 2689 3.8 2134 3.8 6214 3.6 2509 3.7 913 3.5 782 3.5 814 76 2.8 10003 2.8 2461 2.6 2223 2.9 5319 2.8 2379 2.8 1054 2.8 544 2.7 781 77 1.9 10808 1.8 2872 1.9 3446 1.9 4490 1.9 2514 1.9 995 1.9 615 1.9 904 78 1.0 6862 0.9 1876 1.0 1852 1.0 3134 0.9 1804 1.0 667 0.9 552 0.9 585

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE B-14 1989 Mean Work Experience, by Sex, Year of Ph.D., and Marital Status   Men Women Total Single Married without Children Children at Home Total Single Married without Children Cat Home hildren Ph.D. Year. Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n Mean n 67 21.4 10083 21.0 1326 21.6 5870 21.0 2887 18.2 1002 20.3 336 18.0 472 15.3 194 68 20.3 12044 20.2 1334 20.3 6902 20.4 3808 17.5 1071 18.6 370 17.9 422 15.2 279 69 19.4 13321 19.1 1056 19.4 7146 19.5 5119 17.4 1265 18.4 424 17.0 488 16.9 353 70 18.2 14773 17.6 1888 18.3 6891 18.4 5994 16.4 1469 17.8 562 15.6 550 15.5 357 71 17.5 15462 17.5 1491 17.4 7215 17.7 6756 15.9 1946 16.3 622 16.3 816 15.0 508 72 16.4 14738 16.1 1807 16.5 6694 16.2 6237 15.1 2180 16.0 669 15.3 906 13.8 605 73 15.3 13656 14.8 1823 15.6 5004 15.3 6829 14.0 2387 14.5 731 13.9 872 13.6 784 74 14.4 14637 14.0 1810 14.4 5793 14.4 7034 13.5 2495 13.7 782 14.1 848 12.6 865 75 13.5 12904 12.9 1561 13.6 4081 13.6 7262 12.0 2830 13.2 829 11.6 991 11.4 1010 76 12.4 11995 11.6 1964 12.4 3539 12.5 6492 11.5 3009 11.9 918 11.6 936 11.1 1155 77 11.3 13865 10.7 1781 11.5 4499 11.4 7585 10.5 3024 11.0 843 11.1 1007 9.7 1174 78 10.4 12763 10.1 1806 10.4 3497 10.5 7460 9.3 3601 9.6 1022 9.6 1092 8.9 1487 79 9.5 12094 9.1 1871 9.6 3472 9.6 6751 8.8 3703 9.2 1217 9.0 1202 8.4 1284 80 8.5 12823 8.2 1850 8.5 3681 8.5 7292 8.0 4085 8.4 1305 7.9 1081 7.8 1699 81 7.6 12190 7.5 1830 7.6 2941 7.7 7419 7.1 4172 7.6 1393 7.2 1133 6.5 1646 82 6.6 12244 6.4 2424 6.4 3257 6.7 6563 6.1 4524 6.2 1182 6.2 1498 5.9 1844 83 5.4 12311 5.2 2543 5.3 3281 5.6 6487 5.0 4799 5.4 1340 5.2 1421 4.7 2038 84 4.6 11580 4.4 2865 4.8 2916 4.6 5799 4.3 4578 4.5 1502 4.5 1350 3.8 1726 85 3.7 11810 3.6 3075 3.6 3436 3.8 5299 3.5 4906 3.7 1916 3.4 1333 3.4 1657 86 2.7 11740 2.7 3379 2.7 3523 2.8 4838 2.6 5249 2.7 1656 2.6 2122 2.4 1471 87 1.8 12700 1.8 4224 1.9 3763 1.8 4713 1.7 5519 1.8 2117 1.8 2031 1.6 1371 88 1.1 7062 1.0 2371 1.1 2418 1.1 2273 1.0 3011 1.0 1155 1.0 1134 0.9 722

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