APPENDIX C
Tables



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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers APPENDIX C Tables

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-1 Percent Working Full Time in Each Sector, by Sex and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Colleges and Universities N 104,553 8,970 134,911 16,878 167,638 35,370 163,145 47,252 % 56.0 67.8 52.2 61.4 48.7 54.0 45.0 51.38 Government N 21,318 1,312 27,941 2,362 33,264 5,287 37,236 9,208 % 11.4 9.9 10.8 8.6 9.7 8.1 10.3 10.0 Industry N 47,829 960 72,286 3,470 116,528 15,174 135,486 24,121 % 25.6 7.3 28.0 12.6 33.9 23.2 37.3 26.2 Private Nonprofit and Hospitals N 9,973 1,275 16,614 3,138 18,889 6,655 16,057 5,796 % 5.3 9.6 6.4 11.4 5.5 10.2 4.4 6.3 Other N 2,884 653 4,208 1,224 5,904 2,381 8,141 4,338 % 1.5 4.9 1.6 4.5 1.7 3.6 2.2 4.7 Missing Data N 314 68 2,387 399 1,911 583 2,894 1,254 % 0.17 0.5 0.9 1.5 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.4 Total N 186,871 13,238 258,347 27,471 344,134 65,450 362,959 91,969 % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Note: Counts are weighted. Other is primarily education at below the level of a two-year college. Missing Data indicates that respondent did not respond to the questions or their response was unusable.

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-2 Percent Working Full Time in Various Work Activities, by Sex and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Teaching N 66,743 6,008 73,784 9,276 83,539 17,388 76,136 22,575 % 35.7 45.4 28.6 33.8 24.3 26.6 21.0 24.6 Basic Research N 27,994 2,883 38,634 5,610 52,131 12,016 50,429 14,331 % 15.0 21.8 15.0 20.4 15.2 18.4 13.9 15.6 Applied Research N 26,094 840 32,538 2,072 64,790 9,181 77,288 16,519 % 14.0 6.4 12.6 7.5 18.8 14.0 21.3 18.0 Production N 13,001 340 26,845 1,241 40,707 3,792 45,140 5,878 % 7.0 2.6 10.4 4.5 11.8 5.8 12.4 6.4 Management N 41,175 1,565 62,425 4,437 59,816 9,116 46,953 9,102 % 22.0 11.8 24.2 16.2 17.4 13.9 12.9 9.9 Professional Services N 4,584 1,003 12,181 3,092 20,926 9,463 36,910 17,713 % 2.5 7.6 4.7 11.3 6.1 14.5 10.2 19.3 Other Work Activities N 4,391 397 8,564 1,042 19,223 3,568 29,254 5,112 % 2.4 3.0 3.3 3.8 5.6 5.5 8.1 5.6 Missing Data N 2,889 202 3,376 701 3,002 926 849 739 % 1.6 1.5 1.3 2.6 0.9 1.4 0.2 0.8 Total N 186,871 13,238 258,347 27,471 344,134 65,450 362,959 91,969 % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Note: Counts are weighted.

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-3 Percent Working Full Time in Each Sector, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   Women Men 1973 1979 1989 1995 1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering   Academia 47.1 43.1 41.3 42.2 38.7 36.0 36.1 32.2 Industry 35.6 44.7 46.1 46.2 46.2 49.8 53.5 57.0 Government 9.2 9.0 8.0 8.3 10.4 9.6 7.2 7.0 PNP/Hospitals 5.8 2.7 3.8 2.1 4.0 4.0 3.0 2.8 Other Education 2.3 0.5 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.7 0.2 1.0 N 87 367 1,671 3,778 31,717 45,315 63,212 72,496 Mathematics   Academia 88.0 73.1 67.7 60.6 81.7 72.4 66.1 60.9 Industry 3.4 14.5 23.1 21.9 10.1 17.0 25.5 29.6 Government 3.5 3.4 3.6 5.9 5.3 5.8 4.3 4.2 PNP/Hospitals 1.9 4.5 2.3 3.2 2.1 2.5 2.4 3.0 Other Education 3.2 4.6 3.3 8.5 0.8 2.2 1.8 2.3 N 627 1,132 2,270 3,290 10,925 15,241 21,570 24,827 Physical Sciences   Academia 60.6 48.0 39.4 39.8 42.0 40.1 38.5 37.6 Industry 17.7 28.9 40.8 43.5 39.9 42.2 46.3 45.7 Government 10.0 9.7 10.0 8.0 11.7 10.6 9.8 10.1 PNP/Hospitals 6.5 7.2 5.3 3.2 4.6 4.8 3.9 4.1 Other Education 5.2 6.3 4.5 5.6 1.9 2.3 1.5 2.5 N 1,814 3,239 7,095 10,543 55,990 70,367 84,777 87,228

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences   Academia 70.2 68.0 62.1 59.5 65.4 62.2 56.3 53.1 Industry 5.7 7.7 17.4 19.9 13.2 15.2 23.1 27.3 Government 10.7 9.5 9.0 10.4 14.6 13.8 12.5 12.2 PNP/Hospitals 8.9 10.0 8.4 5.4 5.2 6.3 5.7 4.3 Other Education 4.5 4.8 3.2 4.9 1.6 2.5 2.4 3.0 N 4,893 9,078 22,754 34,263 45,874 63,157 86,440 94,175 Social/Behavioral   Academia 66.0 59.8 51.2 47.6 70.5 62.3 55.9 49.7 Industry 5.3 11.0 22.2 25.6 8.8 12.2 20.5 25.2 Government 9.9 8.2 7.3 10.7 9.9 10.2 9.8 12.8 PNP/Hospitals 12.2 14.2 13.4 8.5 8.3 11.1 9.4 6.6 Other Education 6.6 6.8 5.8 7.5 2.5 4.3 4.5 5.6 N 5,817 13,655 31,660 40,095 42,365 64,267 88,135 84,233

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-4 Number Working Full Time in Each Sector, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   Women Men 1973 1979 1989 1995 1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering   Academia 41 158 690 1,593 12,271 16,310 22,816 23,332 Industry 31 164 771 1,746 14,638 22,569 33,819 41,306 Government 8 33 133 314 3,282 4,333 4,558 5,075 PNP/Hospitals 5 10 63 79 1,277 1,790 1,878 2,051 Other Education 1 2 7 13 190 81 40 425 N 86 367 1,664 3,745 31,658 45,083 63,111 72,189 Mathematics   Academia 552 827 1,537 1,993 8,929 11,040 14,252 15,121 Industry 21 164 524 720 1,102 2,596 5,505 7,344 Government 22 38 82 193 578 887 921 1,051 PNP/Hospitals 12 51 52 105 231 386 512 743 Other Education 19 47 64 247 85 254 343 456 N 626 1,127 2,259 3,258 10,925 15,163 21,533 24,715 Physical Sciences   Academia 1,100 1,555 2,798 4,193 23,494 28,241 32,640 32,808 Industry 321 935 2,893 4,583 22,312 29,683 39,220 39,850 Government 181 313 711 844 6,541 7,459 8,325 8,796 PNP/Hospitals 118 233 376 334 2,559 3,359 3,338 3,613 Other Education 90 170 235 529 1,025 1,113 1,069 1,770 N 1,810 3,206 7,013 10,483 55,931 69,855 84,592 86,837

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences   Academia 3,436 6,175 14,124 20,373 30,002 39,282 48,683 50,023 Industry 279 700 3,953 6,803 6,068 9,621 19,947 25,728 Government 523 860 2,045 3,551 6,711 8,702 10,835 11,503 PNP/Hospitals 433 911 1,909 1,852 2,384 3,960 4,885 4,084 Other Education 206 254 514 1,158 588 1,067 1,435 2,103 N 4,877 8,900 22,545 33,737 45,753 62,632 85,785 93,441 Social/Behavioral   Academia 3,841 8,163 16,221 19,100 29,857 40,038 49,247 41,861 Industry 308 1,507 7,033 10,269 3,709 7,817 18,037 21,258 Government 578 1,118 2,316 4,306 4,206 6,560 8,625 10,811 PNP/Hospitals 707 1,933 4,255 3,426 3,522 7,119 8,276 5,566 Other Education 337 751 1,561 2,391 996 1,693 3,017 3,387 N 5,771 13,472 31,386 39,492 42,290 63,227 87,202 82,883

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-5 Percent in Each Work Activity in Academia, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   Women Men 1973 1979 1989 1995 1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering   Teaching 65.9 54.8 47.9 49.0 68.0 54.8 51.4 48.2 Basic Research 4.9 19.8 21.1 10.4 7.1 7.8 10.1 11.9 Applied Research 19.5 14.0 25.6 28.6 10.5 15.7 21.8 26.2 Production 0.0 3.8 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.5 3.9 Administration 9.8 7.6 3.4 10.4 13.1 20.5 14.9 8.6 Professional Services 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.3 1.4 N 41 157 677 1,542 12,016 16,198 22,456 22,668 Mathematics   Teaching 86.1 74.5 69.6 65.0 76.7 69.6 61.3 65.5 Basic Research 8.2 13.1 16.1 19.4 14.6 14.9 23.6 18.2 Applied Research 1.9 3.8 6.7 10.6 1.5 2.7 5.4 7.3 Production 1.1 2.9 0.5 1.7 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.1 Administration 2.8 5.4 7.0 3.4 6.7 11.8 8.4 6.2 Professional Services 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 1.6 N 538 815 1,485 1,916 8,804 10,873 14,028 14,607 Physical Sciences   Teaching 59.6 44.0 41.9 45.2 62.9 49.7 44.6 38.8 Basic Research 29.2 38.5 38.8 31.8 24.0 25.9 31.8 33.2 Applied Research 3.3 4.9 9.8 13.6 3.4 6.5 12.0 15.2 Production 0.7 1.3 1.1 2.1 1.0 2.5 1.5 2.7 Administration 5.9 10.6 7.3 5.4 8.8 15.2 9.4 8.3 Professional Services 1.5 0.7 1.2 2.0 0.0 0.3 0.8 1.9 N 1,076 1,506 2,705 3,958 22,993 27,775 32,033 31,451

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences   Teaching 48.3 39.8 32.5 31.9 48.6 37.7 30.3 27.8 Basic Research 39.0 42.2 43.9 37.7 27.2 33.6 38.9 37.1 Applied Research 4.7 5.0 11.7 15.9 10.9 10.4 16.4 18.0 Production 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.5 Administration 7.1 11.0 8.0 6.6 11.5 14.8 9.8 8.3 Professional Services 0.8 1.5 3.3 6.4 1.0 2.7 4.0 7.3 N 3,351 5,971 13,794 20,056 28,873 38,141 46,979 48,880 Social/Behavioral   Teaching 75.1 62.6 57.7 52.4 71.4 66.3 62.6 58.7 Basic Research 7.8 12.4 14.5 13.0 8.8 8.4 12.7 12.8 Applied Research 2.5 6.0 9.2 14.2 5.1 5.8 7.5 12.5 Production 1.5 0.8 0.4 1.1 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.4 Administration 9.4 14.5 12.6 9.4 12.5 16.2 13.5 9.3 Professional Services 3.7 3.8 5.6 10.0 1.5 2.4 3.0 5.3 N 3,723 7,791 15,716 18,697 28,904 38,742 47,771 41,052

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-6 Percent in Each Work Activity in Industry, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   Women Men 1973 1979 1989 1995 1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering   Teaching 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.4 Basic Research 7.1 3.2 5.5 1.2 1.8 3.6 2.7 1.4 Applied Research 21.4 32.3 37.1 33.1 26.8 17.0 28.2 25.6 Production 46.4 41.3 35.7 40.3 34.7 40.7 42.4 45.9 Administration 25.0 21.9 20.7 17.0 36.4 37.0 25.1 21.7 Professional Services 0.0 1.3 0.6 8.5 0.3 1.5 1.1 4.9 N 28 155 704 1,428 14,100 21,783 31,509 35,091 Mathematics   Teaching 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.6 0.6 1.5 0.7 Basic Research 20.0 8.0 7.2 0.9 4.4 3.2 6.6 5.3 Applied Research 53.3 17.9 20.9 59.0 31.4 17.1 23.8 34.2 Production 26.7 53.0 39.7 23.3 29.8 44.8 43.5 33.0 Administration 0.0 19.9 30.4 9.5 31.1 31.5 24.1 20.1 Professional Services 0.0 1.3 1.0 7.4 2.7 2.8 0.6 6.8 N 15 151 388 473 1,080 2,436 4,421 4,354 Physical Sciences   Teaching 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 Basic Research 19.6 16.5 6.8 2.8 10.4 9.8 4.2 4.5 Applied Research 44.1 28.0 48.1 47.8 30.4 22.6 39.4 37.3 Production 14.6 20.0 25.8 30.6 16.5 24.6 29.6 31.8 Administration 19.9 31.9 17.9 10.0 41.7 41.7 26.0 19.9 Professional Services 1.8 3.5 1.1 8.2 0.8 1.3 0.6 6.3 N 281 869 2,626 4,071 21,294 28,192 36,342 35,157

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences   Teaching 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.1 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.9 Basic Research 30.8 16.0 6.8 6.6 8.2 5.9 4.1 4.9 Applied Research 23.5 22.4 37.0 36.9 17.8 15.5 33.4 35.4 Production 16.2 16.7 24.9 23.2 17.0 28.7 28.1 23.9 Administration 25.2 32.4 23.3 14.0 51.3 41.9 27.5 18.1 Professional Services 4.3 12.6 7.2 18.3 5.6 7.7 6.5 16.9 N 234 652 3,441 6,241 5,783 8,849 18,039 24,031 Social/Behavioral   Teaching 1.6 0.4 0.3 1.9 1.3 0.0 0.8 0.7 Basic Research 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.7 3.1 1.5 0.4 0.4 Applied Research 10.6 8.5 8.2 8.5 13.4 14.2 8.2 14.2 Production 12.1 11.6 16.0 8.5 22.7 23.9 27.3 13.8 Administration 18.8 8.3 8.4 6.4 31.3 18.7 12.8 10.2 Professional Services 55.9 70.2 66.5 74.0 28.1 41.7 50.6 60.6 N 256 1,383 6,368 9,891 3,379 7,362 15,532 19,294

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE C-7 Percent in Each Work Activity in Government, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   Women Men 1973 1979 1989 1995 1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering   Teaching 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 2.6 1.0 0.1 Basic Research 28.6 0.0 17.0 14.1 7.5 9.1 7.9 7.9 Applied Research 14.3 26.9 44.3 43.4 32.2 23.4 34.1 46.5 Production 57.1 23.1 4.7 7.2 9.3 10.4 19.1 12.6 Administration 0.0 46.2 34.0 22.8 46.3 54.2 38.0 27.8 Professional Services 0.0 3.9 0.0 12.6 0.2 0.4 0.0 5.0 N 7 26 106 263 3,063 3,974 4,271 4,524 Mathematics   Teaching 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 Basic Research 5.0 0.0 12.1 11.3 12.9 6.1 6.5 16.4 Applied Research 25.0 6.3 24.1 12.0 38.5 39.9 46.2 47.7 Production 15.0 50.0 15.5 18.7 12.3 22.0 11.9 13.0 Administration 55.0 43.8 48.3 52.0 30.9 29.6 35.4 17.1 Professional Services 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 1.1 2.4 0.0 5.9 N 20 32 58 150 551 874 613 709 Physical Sciences   Teaching 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.7 1.1 0.9 0.4 Basic Research 45.9 37.9 32.7 36.9 34.5 28.3 23.8 20.0 Applied Research 29.4 12.8 29.8 47.6 24.1 24.5 33.9 42.9 Production 0.6 13.8 11.0 4.1 6.0 12.1 7.7 8.8 Administration 17.7 34.1 24.3 10.5 33.4 32.5 32.9 22.7 Professional Services 5.9 1.4 1.7 0.9 0.3 1.5 0.8 5.2 N 170 290 584 555 6,195 6,882 7,646 7,553

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Life Sciences   Teaching 1.6 2.1 1.5 0.2 1.2 0.4 0.9 0.6 Basic Research 52.6 45.8 32.5 22.7 30.2 31.4 25.7 23.5 Applied Research 18.6 11.9 25.6 30.6 28.5 25.4 34.4 39.1 Production 3.9 10.6 6.2 8.4 2.7 5.0 4.0 5.3 Administration 22.1 25.3 31.3 22.2 35.5 35.2 32.4 22.1 Professional Services 1.2 4.3 3.0 15.9 1.9 2.7 2.7 9.5 N 489 771 1,793 3,098 6,385 8,064 9,496 10,181 Social/Behavioral   Teaching 5.4 0.0 1.1 0.6 2.8 1.1 4.8 0.8 Basic Research 7.4 7.1 3.8 3.1 7.8 5.6 2.8 3.9 Applied Research 11.5 17.5 26.0 21.7 16.0 21.7 26.1 23.5 Production 2.4 11.5 6.9 3.8 3.9 8.8 7.2 8.8 Administration 37.3 45.7 44.0 20.7 55.3 47.2 43.9 23.9 Professional Services 36.0 18.3 18.3 50.1 14.2 15.6 15.3 39.2 N 539 991 2,025 3,708 3,781 5,449 6,718 9,272

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers This page in the original is blank.