APPENDIX D
Tables



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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers APPENDIX D Tables

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-1 Percent Working Full Time in Academia of All Ph.D.s and All Ph.D.s Who Are Working Full Time, by Sex, Field and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Engineering % of Ph.D.s 36.7 32.3 34.5 37.4 33.3 37.3 28.5 35.8 n 33442 127 47329 422 68482 1852 82512 4447 % of FT 38.7 47.1 36 43.1 36.1 41.3 32.4 42.2 n 31717 87 45315 367 63212 1671 72496 3778 Mathematics % of Ph.D.s 76.2 63.5 68.2 59.2 62.1 57.8 54.9 50 n 11719 869 16180 1397 22966 2659 27727 4008 % of FT 81.7 88 72.4 73.1 66.1 67.7 61.3 60.9 n 10925 627 15241 1132 21570 2270 24827 3290 Physical Science % of PhDs 38.3 38.4 37.2 36.7 34.2 32.8 31.7 32.9 n 61358 2864 75878 4235 95396 8540 104500 12860 % of FT 42 60.6 40.1 48 38.5 39.4 38 40.1 n 55990 1814 70367 3239 84777 7095 87228 10543 Life Sciences % of Ph.D.s 59.5 48.3 57.7 52.5 50.3 51.4 46 50.4 n 50438 7119 68133 11773 96767 27498 109811 40987 % of FT 65.4 70.2 62.2 68 56.3 62.1 53.6 60.3 n 45874 4893 63157 9078 86440 22754 94175 34263

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Social and Behavioral Sciences % of Ph.D.s 63.1 45.7 57.4 46.8 49.4 39.8 43 37.2 n 47296 8407 69802 17458 99780 40768 99024 51986 % of FT 70.5 66 62.3 59.8 55.9 51.2 50.5 48.2 n 42365 5817 64267 13655 88135 31660 84233 40095 Combined Fields % of Ph.D.s 51.2 46.3 48.6 47.8 43.7 43.5 38.9 41.8 n 204253 19386 277322 35285 383391 81317 423574 114288 % of FT 55.9 67.8 52.2 61.4 48.7 54 45.4 52 n 186871 13238 258347 27471 344134 65450 362959 91969

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-2 Percent and Number of Full-Time Academic Labor Force Who Are Women, by Field and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Engineering % Women 0.3 1.0 2.9 6.3 n Women 41 158 690 1593 n Total 12,312 16,468 23,506 25,117 Mathematics % Women 5.8 7.0 9.7 11.6 n Women 552 827 1537 2003 n Total 9,481 11,867 15,789 17,214 Physical Science % Women 4.5 5.2 7.9 11.3 n Women 1100 1555 2798 4229 n Total 24,594 29,796 35,438 37,369 Life Sciences % Women 10.3 13.6 22.5 29.0 n Women 3436 6175 14124 20663 n Total 33,438 45,457 62,807 71,150 Social and Behavioral Sciences % Women 11.4 16.9 24.8 31.2 n Women 3841 8163 16221 19341 n Total 33,698 48,201 65,468 61,899 Combined Fields % Women 7.9 11.1 17.4 22.5 n Women 8970 16878 35370 47829 n Total 113,523 151,789 203,008 212,749

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-3 Number of Full-Time Scientists Working in Academia by Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field and Year of Survey   1973 1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Engineering Research I 6675 17 8121 78 11714 399 11303 663 Research II 1632 2 2219 8 2997 50 2476 123 Doctoral 1901 9 2092 23 3052 58 3430 258 Master’s 998 6 1169 12 1915 102 2532 198 Baccalaureate 172 0 156 2 306 15 340 52 Medical 121 0 370 9 602 28 874 96 Engineering 159 0 182 0 401 4 305 28 Other 169 2 127 2 458 0 321 19 Missing 444 5 1874 24 1371 34 1943 156 Total 12271 41 16310 158 22816 690 23524 1593 Mathematics Research I 3705 146 4533 271 5515 441 5142 576 Research II 956 37 974 55 1308 98 1337 191 Doctoral 1187 61 1428 95 1950 206 2041 242 Master’s 1909 186 2318 227 3502 497 4287 474 Baccalaureate 828 96 981 102 1225 192 1392 276 Medical 19 2 144 19 103 47 241 95 Engineering 66 0 43 0 120 5 105 57 Other 68 1 72 12 118 14 232 0 Missing 191 23 547 46 411 37 434 92 Total 8929 552 11040 827 14252 1537 15211 2003

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers   1973 1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Physical Sciences Research I 9857 376 10549 514 12473 1171 12773 1587 Research II 2174 56 1965 115 2278 181 2208 272 Doctoral 2807 99 2961 120 3105 235 3788 293 Master’s 4252 253 4328 259 5467 438 5288 800 Baccalaureate 2273 165 2827 209 3313 335 3012 425 Medical 520 64 1053 181 1598 202 1723 290 Engineering 214 0 225 2 125 8 232 15 Other 139 9 266 8 183 14 355 87 Missing 1258 78 4067 147 4098 214 3761 460 Total 23494 1100 28241 1555 32640 2798 33140 4229 Life Sciences Research I 14375 1287 15375 2147 19102 5249 18384 6574 Research II 2819 198 3219 232 4475 834 4340 1231 Doctoral 2527 236 2399 446 3593 1070 3304 1602 Master’s 3785 550 4486 798 5295 1596 5789 2774 Baccalaureate 1547 266 1896 445 2014 648 2274 1040 Medical 3847 734 9659 1773 13112 4454 14156 6429 Engineering 24 0 66 5 88 0 107 22 Other 65 11 63 7 148 34 211 129 Missing 1013 154 2119 322 856 239 1922 862 Total 30002 3436 39282 6175 48683 14124 50487 20663

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Social and Behavioral Sciences Research I 11838 1264 13873 2868 16260 5524 12481 6243 Research II 3213 243 3668 532 4121 1358 3615 1368 Doctoral 4016 480 5801 1081 6761 1732 6042 2240 Master’s 6556 1146 9449 1775 13184 3569 11280 4346 Baccalaureate 2711 428 3447 836 5185 1810 4566 2114 Medical 601 147 1746 718 2446 1711 2384 2330 Engineering 0 3 74 0 95 0 42 0 Other 232 17 221 103 581 265 526 215 Missing 690 113 1759 250 614 252 1622 485 Total 29857 3841 40038 8163 49247 16221 42558 19341 Combined Fields Research I 46450 3090 52451 5878 65064 12784 60083 15643 Research II 10794 536 12045 942 15179 2521 13976 3185 Doctoral 12438 885 14681 1765 18461 3301 18605 4635 Master’s 17500 2141 21750 3071 29363 6202 29176 8592 Baccalaureate 7531 955 9307 1594 12043 3000 11584 3907 Medical 5108 947 12972 2700 17861 6442 19378 9240 Engineering 463 3 590 7 829 17 791 122 Other 673 40 749 132 1488 327 1645 450 Missing 3596 373 10366 789 7350 776 9682 2055 Total 104553 8970 134911 16878 167638 35370 164920 47829

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-4 Number of Full-Time Scientists With and Without Tenure-Track Positions by Carnegie Type of Institution, Sex, Field, and Year of Survey   1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Engineering   Research I Off-track 1277 24 984 65 1726 85 On-track 6628 50 9447 271 8850 431 Research II Off-track 50 4 150 2 274 0 On-track 2118 4 2717 48 2137 111 Doctoral Off-track 209 10 176 4 450 43 On-track 1883 11 2715 51 2914 202 Master’s Off-track 211 0 302 4 262 0 On-track 958 12 1492 96 2246 198 Baccalaureate Off-track 0 0 42 1 29 26 On-track 140 2 247 14 311 26 Medical Off-track 146 5 146 7 454 60 On-track 143 2 367 16 305 6 Engineering Off-track 75 0 52 0 70 16 On-track 107 0 315 4 235 12 Total   13945 124 19152 583 20263 1216 Mathematics   Research I Off-track 519 78 563 74 734 166 On-track 3916 185 4305 321 4223 294 Research II Off-track 77 17 48 8 16 18 On-Track 895 38 1147 82 1244 173 Doctoral Off-track 85 23 50 20 84 32 On-track 1328 72 1797 179 1903 210

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Master’s Off-track 126 27 158 12 106 43 On-track 2177 200 3097 456 4164 415 Baccalaureate Off-track 164 23 39 14 156 18 On-track 817 79 1142 168 1218 258 Medical Off-track 39 6 37 18 84 32 On-track 62 11 62 20 125 43 Engineering Off-track 0 0 2 0 0 8 On-track 43 0 118 5 105 49 Total   10248 759 12565 1377 14162 1759 Physical Sciences   Research I Off-track 1977 193 2147 346 3154 492 On-track 7167 174 7652 433 7006 575 Research II Off-track 216 46 297 32 292 98 On-track 1637 41 1649 89 1575 151 Doctoral Off-track 406 21 243 41 499 112 On-track 2409 76 2645 160 2998 181 Master’s Off-track 323 46 340 52 413 143 On-track 3970 208 4786 338 4741 657 Baccalaureate Off-track 359 62 434 37 509 138 On-track 2390 145 2729 289 2500 287 Medical Off-track 255 82 441 79 634 157 On-track 719 38 792 67 835 16 Engineering Off-track 92 0 9 0 42 0 On-track 119 2 116 4 175 15 Total   22039 1134 24280 1967 25373 3022

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers   1979 1989 1995 Men Women Men Women Men Women Life Sciences   Research I Off-track 2519 641 2644 1359 3592 1896 On-track 11122 893 12411 2436 11972 3065 Research II Off-track 280 59 387 168 569 195 On-track 2801 130 3631 507 3404 818 Doctoral Off-track 216 79 358 201 387 329 On-track 2100 340 2796 806 2753 1167 Master’s Off-track 488 117 396 166 752 350 On-track 3946 668 4541 1356 4960 2402 Baccalaureate Off-track 219 88 130 78 399 175 On-track 1670 342 1766 526 1875 809 Medical Off-track 1970 612 3043 1595 4316 2374 On-track 5922 676 7431 1658 7986 2526 Engineering Off-track 7 0 0 0 37 0 On-track 52 5 88 0 70 22 Total   33312 4650 39622 10856 43072 16128 Social and Behavioral Sciences   Research I Off-track 1587 555 1900 1303 2189 1898 On-track 11860 2103 13185 3710 9947 3893 Research II Off-track 523 107 303 273 539 360 On-track 3091 423 3328 968 3023 988 Doctoral Off-track 778 221 429 281 724 567 On-track 4985 839 5841 1322 5296 1643

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Master’s Off-track 965 200 797 470 860 573 On-Track 8451 1565 11667 2869 10368 3773 Baccalaureate Off-track 345 211 659 413 647 486 On-Track 3084 602 4176 1263 3919 1628 Medical Off-track 560 274 915 680 1015 1394 On-Track 1026 268 1123 626 1254 599 Engineering Off-track 29 0 40 0 22 0 On-Track 45 0 55 0 20 0 Total   37329 7368 44418 14178 39823 17802 Combined Fields   Research I Off-track 7879 1491 8238 3147 11395 4537 On-Track 40693 3405 47000 7171 41998 8258 Research II Off-track 1146 233 1185 483 1690 671 On-Track 10542 636 12472 1694 11383 2241 Doctoral Off-track 1694 354 1256 547 2144 1083 On-Track 12705 1338 15794 2518 15864 3403 Master’s Off-track 2113 390 1993 704 2393 1109 On-Track 19502 2653 25583 5115 26479 7445 Baccalaureate Off-track 1087 384 1304 543 1740 843 On-Track 8101 1170 10060 2260 9823 3008 Medical Off-track 2970 979 4582 2379 6503 4017 On-Track 7872 995 9775 2387 10505 3190 Engineering Off-track 203 0 103 0 171 24 On-Track 366 7 692 13 605 98 Total   116873 14035 140037 28961 142693 39927

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-9 Percent With a Given Rank by Sex, Field, and Year of Survey   Men Women Difference 1979 1989 1995 1979 1989 1995 1979 1989 1995 Engineering Asst. Prof. 14.0 19.4 19.0 51.2 58.8 56.9 –37.2 –39.4 –37.9 Assoc. Prof. 28.7 24.7 31.3 30.0 26.0 28.4 –1.3 –1.3 2.9 Full Prof. 57.3 55.9 49.7 18.8 15.2 14.7 38.5 40.7 35.0 n 11,907 17,228 16,986 80 500 986   Mathematics Asst. Prof. 21.9 21.6 20.0 40.3 33.5 38.1 –18.4 –11.9 –18.1 Assoc. Prof. 35.5 29.3 33.7 35.6 37.4 33.8 –0.1 –8.1 –0.1 Full Prof. 42.6 49.1 46.3 24.1 29.1 28.1 18.5 20.0 18.2 n 9,125 11,648 12,982 585 1,231 1,442   Physical Sciences Asst. Prof. 14.4 14.4 15.6 27.0 39.6 47.6 –12.6 –25.2 –32.0 Assoc. Prof. 31.3 21.9 23.5 40.4 29.0 28.2 –9.1 –7.1 –4.7 Full Prof. 54.3 63.8 60.9 32.6 31.4 24.3 21.7 32.4 36.6 n 18,277 20,245 19,688 684 1,380 1,865   Life Sciences Asst. Prof. 20.5 18.0 19.4 45.1 38.8 37.7 –24.6 –20.8 –18.3 Assoc. Prof. 31.6 27.6 25.7 32.2 36.7 35.1 –0.6 –9.1 –9.4 Full Prof. 48.0 54.5 54.9 22.8 24.4 27.2 25.2 30.1 27.7 n 27,392 32,577 32,836 3,035 7,274 10,759  

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Social and Behavioral Sciences Asst. Prof. 22.8 15.6 16.5 48.2 35.1 35.1 –25.4 –19.5 –18.6 Assoc. Prof. 29.4 30.8 27.9 31.2 36.5 35.8 –1.8 –5.7 –7.9 Full Prof. 47.8 53.6 55.6 20.6 28.4 29.1 27.2 25.2 26.5 n 32,310 39,274 33,638 5,743 10,756 12,444   Combined Fields Asst. Prof. 19.5 17.2 17.9 45.4 37.1 37.9 –25.9 –19.9 –20.0 Assoc. Prof. 30.8 27.4 27.7 32.4 35.9 34.6 –1.6 –8.5 –6.9 Full Prof. 49.7 55.4 54.4 22.2 27.0 27.5 27.5 28.4 26.9 n 99,011 120,972 116,130 10,127 21,141 27,496  

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-10 Percent With a Given Rank by Sex, Carnegie Type, and Year of Survey   Men Women Difference 1979 1989 1995 1979 1989 1995 1979 1989 1995 Research I Asst. Prof. 17.9 18.4 16.9 50.7 39.8 38.5 –32.8 –21.4 –21.6 Assoc. Prof. 26.3 23.9 26.6 29.9 34.8 31.2 –3.6 –10.9 –4.6 Full Prof. 55.8 57.7 56.5 19.4 25.4 30.3 36.4 32.3 26.2 n 40790 47578 42367 3384 7180 8289   Medical Asst. Prof. 27.6 21.0 28.4 54.3 39.0 40.6 –26.7 –18.0 –12.2 Assoc. Prof. 32.2 31.4 25.8 29.2 37.6 33.8 3.0 –6.2 –8.0 Full Prof. 40.2 47.6 45.8 16.4 23.3 25.6 23.8 24.3 20.2 n 7757 9748 10482 992 2387 3186   Research II Asst. Prof. 17.3 15.0 12.8 41.5 39.7 41.3 –24.2 –24.7 –28.5 Assoc. Prof. 27.3 27.5 28.1 30.0 41.9 34.5 –2.7 –14.4 –6.4 Full Prof. 55.3 57.5 59.1 28.5 18.4 24.2 26.8 39.1 34.9 n 10441 12469 11352 636 1694 2241   Doctoral Asst. Prof. 22.3 17.0 19.0 44.1 35.4 40.2 –21.8 –18.4 –21.2 Assoc. Prof. 37.0 33.7 32.0 34.1 41.8 36.0 2.9 –8.1 –4.0 Full Prof. 40.6 49.4 49.0 21.8 22.8 23.8 18.8 26.6 25.2 n 12607 15684 15847 1336 2514 3403   Master’s Asst. Prof. 17.6 14.1 16.5 35.9 34.5 34.8 –18.3 –20.4 –18.3 Assoc. Prof. 36.9 29.0 28.4 37.6 31.1 37.5 –0.7 –2.1 –9.1 Full Prof. 45.6 56.9 55.1 26.5 34.4 27.8 19.1 22.5 27.3 n 19318 25497 26382 2631 5106 7369  

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Baccalaureate Asst. Prof. 22.2 18.7 19.4 47.4 32.5 36.3 –25.2 –13.8 –16.9 Assoc. Prof. 33.0 25.9 25.2 29.4 37.5 36.4 3.6 –11.6 –11.2 Full Prof. 44.8 55.4 55.4 23.2 30.0 27.3 21.6 25.4 28.1 n 8098 9996 9700 1148 2260 3008   All Types Asst. Prof. 19.5 17.2 17.9 45.4 37.1 37.9 –25.9 –19.9 –20.0 Assoc. Prof. 30.8 27.4 27.7 32.4 35.9 34.6 –1.6 –8.5 –6.9 Full Prof. 49.7 55.4 54.4 22.2 27.0 27.5 27.5 28.4 26.9 n 99011 120972 116130 10127 21141 27496  

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-11 Percent of Scientists in Given Types of Positions Who are Female by Field and Year of Survey.   Engineering Mathematics Physical Sciences Life Scicences Social/Behavioral Sciences Percent Women Deviation from % Full Time Percent Women Deviation from % Full Time Percent Women Deviation from % Full Time Percent Women Deviation from % Full Time Percent Women Deviation from % Full Time Full Time 1979 0.9   6.9   5.0   12.3   16.5   1989 2.9 9.8 7.5 21.3 24.1 1995 5.7 11.0 10.6 27.2 30.9 Off-Track 1979 2.1 1.2 14.7 7.8 11.0 6.0 21.9 9.6 24.7 8.2 1989 4.3 1.4 14.0 4.2 13.1 5.6 33.9 12.6 40.4 16.3 1995 6.6 0.9 21.2 10.2 17.1 6.5 34.6 7.4 46.8 15.9 On-Track 1979 0.7 –0.2 6.0 –0.9 3.6 –1.4 10.0 –2.3 15.1 –1.4 1989 2.8 –0.1 9.5 –0.3 6.3 –1.2 18.2 –3.1 21.5 –2.6 1995 5.5 –0.2 10.0 –1.0 8.7 –1.9 24.7 –2.5 27.0 –3.9 Untenured 1979 1.8 0.9 11.0 4.1 5.5 0.5 18.9 6.6 27.3 10.8 1989 6.5 3.6 13.6 3.8 14.7 7.2 31.6 10.3 35.0 10.9 1995 12.9 7.2 18.7 7.7 20.3 9.7 38.0 10.8 41.9 11.0 Tenured 1979 0.4 –0.5 4.7 –2.2 3.2 –1.8 7.0 –5.3 11.0 –5.5 1989 1.5 –1.4 8.3 –1.5 4.5 –3.0 14.0 –7.3 17.7 –6.4 1995 3.0 –2.7 7.4 –3.6 5.9 –4.7 19.7 –7.5 22.5 –8.4

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Assistant Professor 1979 2.6 1.7 10.6 3.7 6.5 1.5 20.1 7.8 28.0 11.5 1989 8.0 5.1 14.0 4.2 16.4 8.9 32.6 11.3 37.9 13.8 1995 15.0 9.3 17.9 6.9 22.3 11.7 39.0 11.8 43.5 12.6 Associate Professor 1979 0.7 –0.2 6.0 –0.9 4.6 –0.4 10.1 –2.2 15.9 –0.6 1989 3.0 0.1 11.9 2.1 8.2 0.7 23.0 1.7 24.5 0.4 1995 5.0 –0.7 10.0 –1.0 10.2 –0.4 30.9 3.7 32.2 1.3 Full Professor 1979 0.2 –0.7 3.4 –3.5 2.2 –2.8 5.0 –7.3 7.1 –9.4 1989 0.8 –2.1 5.9 –3.9 3.2 –4.3 9.1 –12.2 12.7 –11.4 1995 1.7 –4.0 6.3 –4.7 3.6 –7.0 14.0 –13.2 16.2 –14.7 NOTE: Deviation from percent full time is the difference between the percent women in a given category and the percent women working full time in that field. Positive values indicate proportionally more women in that category than the representation of women in that field.

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-12 Multinomial Logit Analysis on Academic Rank, by Sex and Year of Survey. b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test   1979 1989 1995 Variable   Women Men Women Men Women Men Married b –0.297 0.131 –0.026 0.297 0.154 0.386 z 2.13 0.86 0.24 2.28 1.17 3.15 Children <6 at Home b 0.023 –0.109 0.039 0.042 –0.098 –0.078 z 0.12 1.01 0.29 0.37 0.64 0.81 Not a US Citizen b 0.279 0.11 –0.427 –0.331 –0.256 –0.219 z 0.92 0.51 1.89 1.69 0.96 1.59 Career Year b 0.569 0.731 0.562 0.638 0.487 0.62 z 18.5 27.44 21.06 24.65 15.76 26.9 Career Year2 b –0.011 –0.013 –0.009 –0.01 –0.008 –0.01 z 12.14 17.66 10.73 13.15 7.83 15.91 Engineering vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences b –0.46 –0.503 0.163 –0.26 0.307 0.422 z 1 1.99 0.74 1.39 1.11 2.97 Math vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences b –0.31 0.026 0.328 0.011 0.462 0.56 z 1.61 0.15 1.95 0.06 1.99 3.28 Physical Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences b –0.347 –0.601 –0.383 –0.504 0.04 –0.265 z 1.75 3.56 2.32 3.13 0.16 1.65 Life Sciences vs. Social/Behavioral Sciences b –0.86 –0.814 –0.255 –0.45 –0.217 –0.734 z 4.86 5.49 1.71 2.98 1.55 5.44 Medical vs. Research I b –0.365 –0.546 –0.922 –1.166 –0.729 –1.207 z 1.56 3.68 5.44 7.9 3.82 8.64 Research II vs. Research I b 0.551 0.203 0.42 0.248 0.086 0.347 z 1.91 1.09 2.16 1.41 0.36 2.13 Doctoral vs. Research I b 0.283 –0.099 0.11 0.029 –0.043 0.015 z 1.38 0.59 0.65 0.18 0.21 0.11

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Master’s vs. Research I b 0.765 0.727 0.405 0.255 0.42 –0.121 z 4.54 4.96 2.93 1.76 2.57 0.96 Baccalaureate vs. Research I b 0.318 0.665 0.483 0.301 0.557 0.405 z 1.34 3.2 2.53 1.51 2.43 2.03 Private vs. Research I b –0.51 –0.709 –0.482 –0.536 –0.512 –0.733 z 3.56 6 4.23 4.95 3.84 7.41 Ph.D. Prestige b –0.104 0.014 0.029 0.062 –0.187 –0.047 z 1.4 0.22 0.43 0.98 2.32 0.83 Time from Baccalaureate to Ph.D. >10 Years b 1.219 1.423 0.973 0.619 0.861 0.397 z 7.4 8.87 7.54 4.3 6.21 3.14 Missing Data on Having Young Children b –0.046 –0.219 –0.105 0.154   z 0.18 1.04 0.65 0.97 Missing Data on Prestige of Ph.D. b 0.459 0.393 0.361 0.199 z 2.79 3.54 2.86 1.86 Constant b –3.082 –4.066 –4.383 –4.834 –3.365 –4.456 z 8.94 12.55 13.11 14.41 8.75 14.31 Observations   8242 6113 3773 6664 2296 7105

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers TABLE D-13 Multinomial Logit Analysis on Academic Rank, by Sex and Year of Survey. b Indicates Regression Coefficient; z Indicates Value of z-test Panel A: 1979   Women Men Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof. Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Career Yr. –0.841 –0.363 –1.015 –0.404 20.33 10.22 33.83 16.02 Career Yr Squared 0.016 0.006 0.019 0.005 15.41 6.52 27.25 7.69 Engineering1 0.171 0.011 –0.434 –0.202 0.27 0.02 1.53 1.13 Mathematics1 0.537 0.211 0.502 0.385 2.31 1.14 2.61 2.88 Physical Sciences1 0.818 0.602 0.498 0.431 3.49 3.38 2.66 3.44 Biological Sciences1 0.392 0.095 0.629 0.447 2.00 0.59 4.07 4.22 Medical School2 1.273 0.638 0.851 0.574 4.09 2.36 5.05 4.81 Research II2 –0.785 –0.592 –0.355 –0.310 2.37 2.35 1.75 2.24 Doctoral2 –0.542 –0.141 0.494 0.536 2.17 0.72 2.66 4.31 Master’s2 –0.996 –0.412 –0.796 –0.173 4.95 2.62 5.02 1.62 Baccalaureate2 –0.748 –0.617 –0.193 0.114 2.83 2.85 0.87 0.74 Constant 7.109 4.094 7.176 3.791 19.32 12.09 27.12 16.55 Observations 2129 2129 6113 6113 NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses.

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Panel B: 1989   Women Men Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof. Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Career Yr. –0.846 –0.349 –1.032 –0.384 24.37 11.10 32.94 14.83 Career Yr Squared 0.015 0.005 0.018 0.005 16.90 6.18 25.10 7.54 Engineering1 –0.559 –0.342 –0.506 –0.454 1.77 1.21 2.25 2.87 Mathematics1 –0.020 0.165 0.066 0.100 0.10 1.17 0.33 0.82 Physical Sciences1 0.581 0.177 0.434 –0.026 3.07 1.25 2.37 0.22 Biological Sciences1 –0.197 0.052 0.360 0.024 1.26 0.45 2.22 0.24 Medical School2 0.741 0.354 1.077 0.545 3.51 2.09 6.42 4.82 Research II2 0.027 0.400 –0.364 –0.036 0.11 2.08 1.82 0.28 Doctoral2 –0.133 0.285 0.088 0.474 0.65 1.88 0.47 4.12 Master’s2 –0.867 –0.428 –0.597 –0.051 5.38 3.60 3.71 0.52 Baccalaureate2 –0.757 –0.436 –0.245 –0.137 3.54 2.70 1.12 0.95 Constant 8.101 4.361 8.850 4.512 23.35 13.53 28.79 17.05 Observations 3779 3779 6681 6681 NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses

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From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Panel C: 1995   Women Men Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof. Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Asst. Prof. vs Full Prof Assoc. Prof. vs Full Prof Career Yr. –0.827 –0.345 –1.013 –0.391 18.05 8.56 35.53 17.01 Career Yr Squared 0.014 0.005 0.017 0.005 11.42 4.78 27.01 9.00 Engineering1 –0.892 –0.709 –0.660 –0.069 2.20 1.93 3.67 0.55 Mathematics1 –0.674 –0.052 –0.008 0.264 2.17 0.22 0.04 2.13 Physical Sciences1 0.044 –0.160 0.355 –0.006 0.13 0.59 1.91 0.05 Biological Sciences1 –0.108 –0.051 0.628 0.035 0.59 0.36 3.96 0.36 Medical School2 0.717 0.302 1.678 0.595 2.83 1.45 10.20 5.17 Research II2 0.221 0.278 –0.144 0.034 0.67 1.04 0.74 0.26 Doctoral2 –0.158 0.282 0.407 0.502 0.59 1.32 2.44 4.46 Master’s2 –0.708 –0.076 –0.217 0.072 3.37 0.46 1.47 0.75 Baccalaureate2 –0.164 0.225 –0.131 –0.058 0.57 0.99 0.58 0.40 Constant 8.387 4.493 9.133 4.863 18.91 10.99 31.12 19.50 Observations 2300 2300 7114 7114 NOTE: 1-Comparison is to Social/Behavioral Sciences. 2-Comparison is to Research I University. Absolute value of z-statistics in parentheses.