Labor Force

is defined as Ph.D.s in S&E fields who are living in the United States and are under the age of 75. The labor force includes both part time workers and those who are unemployed, including the small number of scientists and engineers who are not looking for work. Retired scientists are not counted in the labor force.

Full-time labor force

is defined as members of the labor force who are working full time in some area of science or engineering.

Employed Outside of S&E

includes doctoral scientists and engineers who are working full time in occupations that are not directly related to S&E as defined by the Survey of Doctorate Recipients.


includes those without jobs who are seeking work.

Out of the Labor Force

are those who are not working and not seeking work.


includes part-time workers and the unemployed.

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