ing that period, the numbers of women grew in all fields, sectors of employment and faculty ranks. Regression analysis was used to identify statistically the independent effects of educational background, field choice, career and family experience on a variety of career outcomes for men and women. Disparities in those outcomes have narrowed over time, but they remain.

What the report has not done is to get behind the numbers. It has not systematically investigated the web of decisionmaking by those who have the power to influence careers. Both men and women encounter such guidance and gatekeeping at all stages of their careers in science. Equally important, it has not delved into the decisionmaking of the men and women themselves. It has not examined the complex calculus that men and women must conduct as they balance the pursuit of a scientific career with the often competing demands of marriage, children, and geographical location. We have observed only the outcomes. So far, these outcomes indicate that women, although they have made great progress toward equality in science and engineering in the past 25 years, are still more likely than their male counterparts to be in positions of lower status and lower pay. It is the hope of the Committee that the careful documentation of progress and stasis provided in this report will be of help to those who wish to see more equal use of talented women scientists and engineers to the benefit of science and engineering generally.



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