BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAS

Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994

Edited by

Alicja Breymeyer

Reginald Noble

with

Stephen Deets, Natalie Brand, Kelly Robbins, Sharon Vandivere

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, DC
1996



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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAS Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Edited by Alicja Breymeyer Reginald Noble with Stephen Deets, Natalie Brand, Kelly Robbins, Sharon Vandivere Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Office of International Affairs National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, DC 1996

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. A limited number copies of this report are available from: Office for Central Europe and Eurasia National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 Tel: 1-800-624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 96-69773 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-05576-8 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Contents OVERVIEW Reginald Noble and Alicja Breymeyer   3 I GENERAL ISSUES OF CONSERVATION OF PROTECTED AREAS         The Biological Diversity of Vegetational Landscapes: Problems with Evaluation Jerzy Solon   15     Restoration Ecology: Some New Perspectives Karen D. Holl   25     Design of Protected Areas Stanley Krugman   36     Streams as Integrators of Ecological and Socioeconomic Processes Catherine Pringle   42     Present Status and Perspectives of MAB Biosphere Reserves Boguslaw Bobek, Dorota Merta, and Kajetan Perzanowski   49 II BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN THE PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES         Biodiversity Conservation in the United States Robert C. Szaro and William T. Sexton   57     A Strategy for Biodiversity Protection in Poland Andrzej Weigle   70     Problems in Transboundary Protected Areas in Ukraine Stephan Stoiko   80     Biodiversity Protection Strategy for the Republic of Belarus Pavel Parfenov   86

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994     Biodiversity Protection Project for the Slovak Republic Zuzana Guziova and Peter Straka   91     Preservation of Biological Diversity in Transboundary Protected Areas of Belarus and Poland Victor Parfenov and Michael Pikulik   97     Biodiversity Protection in Countries with Economies in Transition Zuzana Guziova   103 III BIOSPHERE RESERVES AND NATURAL CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPEAN BORDER REGIONS         Bialowieza National Parks and Biosphere Reserves Czeslaw Okolow and Vjacheslav V. Semakov   109     The Tatra National Park and Transboundary Biosphere Reserve Zbigniew Krzan   116     Problems of Natural Diversity Protection in the Tatra National Park and Biosphere Reserve Zbigniew Krzan, Pawel Skawinski, and Marek Kot   120     The Functioning of the Geoecological System of the Tatra Mountains Adam Kotarba   128     Vychodne Karpathy/East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zuzana Guziova   135     Bieszczady National Park Zbigniew Niewiadomski   141     Karkonosze National Park and Karkonosze/Krkonose Bilateral Biosphere Reserve Maria Goczol-Gontarek   147     The Hydrographic System of Poland with Special Emphasis on Border Regions Roman Soja   151     Transboundary Natural Systems in Eastern Poland and a Proposal for an Environmental Protection Strategy Bozena Degorska   154     New Maps on the Use of and Threats to the Environment in Central and Southern Europe Joanna Plit   161

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 IV WILDLIFE AND TOURIST MANAGEMENT IN TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAS         Bialowieza Primeval Forest: Habitat and Wildlife Management Henryk Okarma, Boguslawa Jedrzeiewska, and Wojciech Jedrzejewski   167     The Management of Large Mammals in the Eastern Carpathians Biosphere Reserves Kajetan Perzanowski, Boguslaw Bobek, W. Frackowiak, R. Gula, Beata Kabza, and Dorota Merta   178     Olympic Elk: Parallels to Red Deer Management in Transboundary Protected Areas of Central Europe David M. Leslie   186     A Proposed System of Cross-Border Protected Areas in the Eastern Border Region of Poland Grezgorz Rakowski   194     Recreation and Tourism Management in Protected Areas Thomas A. Heberlein   203     Tourism's Impact of the Geographical Environment Around Kasprowy Wierch Anna B. Kozlowska, Zofia Raczkowska, and Marek Degorski   210     Environmental Problems of Tatra National Park and the Town of Zakopane Marek Peksa   214 V MONITORING AND MEASURING THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE IN BORDER AREAS         Plant Diversity in Tatra National Park (Slovakia) Rudolf Soltes, Anna Soltesova, and Zuzana Kyselova   221     Floristic Diversity in the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians and the Ukrainian Part of the Biosphere Reserve Lydia Tasenkevich   227     Grasslands of the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve in Slovakia Helena Ruzickova and Miroslav Bural   233     Floristic Diversity in the Latorista River Basin (Ukrainian Carpathians) Bohdan Prots   237     Ecoedaphic Conditions of Transboundary Forest Ecosystems and the Impacts of Air Pollution Milan Kodrik and Edward Bublinec   245

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994     The Below-Ground Biomass of Mature Forest and Immision Loading Milan Kodrik   248     Distribution of Crustacea in Slovakia's Eastern Carpathians and Problems of Preservation Igor Hudec, Duran Barabas, and Juraj Platko   252 VI APPENDICES     A.   Basic Principles and Research Agenda   261 B.   Workshop Agenda   265 C.   List of Participants   271