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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 III BIOSPHERE RESERVES AND NATURAL CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPEAN BORDER REGIONS
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 This page in the original is blank.
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 BIALOWIEZA NATIONAL PARK AND BIOSPHERE RESERVES Czeslaw Okolow Bialowiewa National Park Vjacheslav Vasilievich Semakov State National Park Belovezhskaja GENERAL DESCRIPTION Bialowieza Primeval Forest today encompasses 150,000 hectares on both sides of the Polish and Belarusian border. The Polish (western) part covers 62,500 ha, and the Belarusian (eastern) part, 87,500 ha. Over the course of time, the Forest has developed mature stands of undisturbed origin, a unique phenomen in this European lowland zone of deciduous and mixed forests. These stands developed naturally, practically free of human influence. Local soil and climatic conditions have guided the development of the stands' multi-species and multi-aged structures. The stands also have characteristic spatial distribution and a zonal character of vegetation specific to the post-glacial plains of this part of Europe. These factors have ensured the "biodiversity" of the Forest. Following are some data on the biodiversity: Flora: Species Fauna; Species Vascular plants > 1000 Mammals 62 Bryophytes > 250 Birds 237 Lichens 334 breeding permanently or irregularly 167 Fungi > 3000 Reptiles 7 mushrooms 450 Amphibians 12 Myxomycetes > 80 Fishes 24 Aerophytic algae 156 Insects > 9000 butterflies and lepidopterous > 1050 beetles > 2000 hymenopterous > 3000 dragonflies 23 Snails and other gastropods 61 Spiders > 200
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Because the knowledge of many systematic groups is far from satisfactory, the above data are changed annually based on the results of current investigations. It should be noted that many rare species of Poland and Belarus are found only in Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Just as there are rare or threatened species through the world which are relics of natural habitats, such is the case with primeval forests. One example of such a species is the largest mammal in Europe, the European bison. The ecology of Bialowieza Primeval Forest and the lack of natural ecological barriers or isolation have resulted to many endemic flora and fauna species. But the unusual biodiversity of this ecosystems is exemplified by the fact that over 100 species of cryptogamous plants and invertebrates were first discovered here. In the Polish part of Bialowieza Forest, 25 natural plant communities (16 forest and brushwood, 9 non-forest), 51 seminatural plant communities, and 30 synantropic communities are known. The extent of the biodiversity in this unique forest ecosystem is still unknown. For example, a study of only one forest section (144 ha) noted nearly 2000 species of cryptogamous plants, and this investigation, due to a lack of taxonomists, was restricted to certain chosen groups. The forest community of Tilio-Carpinetum, in which 425 species of Chalcid-wasps were found, provides another example. The process of differentiation and diversification still continues. The long-term influence of special habitat conditions provide niche characteristics and local ecotypes consisting of several organisms, such as trees like the Norway spruce. Daily investigations of butterflies found local races or subspecies characterized with larger size and darker colorations than those in populations outside forest. STATE OF PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS Polish Part The Bialowieza National Park, the oldest national park in Poland, was created in 1921 and encompasses 5,446 ha. The main focus of the park is the Strict Nature Preserve, which comprises 4,747 ha. Other components of the national park are the Palace Park (49 ha), the European Bison Breeding Centre (276 ha), and the buffer zone between the Strict Preserve and the surrounding farmland. However, even the largest portion of the park is not big enough to safeguard all the types of flora, fauna, and vegetation indigenous the Polish part of the forest. The Strict Nature Preserve does not, for example, contain a number of the forest communities common to the western part of the forest such as the cowberry pine forest (Vaccinio vitisideae Pinetum). Similarly, it has not been possible to reserve the necessary habitat for large predators. According to a recent study, an adult male lynx in the Bialowieza Forest inhabits a range between 10,000 and 20,000 ha. In the managed part (54,255 ha) of the forest, which occupies the remainder of the Polish part of the forest, there are 13 complementary nature reserves covering
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 2,364 ha, including a Permanent soil Plot (485 ha) (Fig. 1). There are also over 800 individual trees, mainly oaks, which are protected as monuments of nature. Seed stands are another form of protection. However, forests designated for recreation did not guarantee the necessary ecological protection. In the managed forest surrounding the national park, changes are taking place at an increasing rate. A water storage reservoir built at Narew river on the northern edge of the forest (3200 ha) threatens the national park. Another serious threat is air pollution, which not only comes from distant sources, but also from nearby heating installations which use low quality black coal and which are located sometimes less than 1 km from the Strict Nature Preservation. FIGURE 1 Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Categories of Protection and Land Use: 1. Strict Preserve, 2. Partial Preserve, 3. Buffer Zone of Strict Preserve of BNP, 4. Managed Forests, 5. Intensive Tourism and Recreation, 6. Traditional Farmland and Cattle Breeding
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Since 1977, Bialowieza National Park has been designated as a biosphere reserve. However, it contains only the core zone without other zones with different levels of protection and human activity. In 1979 it was designated as the only natural World Heritage Site in Poland. Belarussian Part In the eastern part of the Bialowieza Forest, a ''zapovedenik" (the Strict Nature Preseve) was established after the war. Later, in 1957, a hunting and nature protection unit was set up to serve primarily as a hunting ground for officials. In 1991 it was designated a national park. The park consists of 87,500 ha, of which 15,600 ha are under strict protection, 57,000 ha are partially protected, and 11,300 ha are designated for public tourism and recreation. There is also a zone of traditional farmland and cattle breeding (3,900 ha). A buffer zone of 82,000 ha surrounds the park. Today, the National Park "Belovezhskaja Pushha" is the only one in the Belarussian forest complex with mature stands (52 percent of the stands are over 100 years old). There are 48 species of plants listed in the Red Data Book (25 percent) and 82 species of animals. The only natural population of silver fir in Belarus is in this Forest, along with the largest herd of free-roaming European bison. In December, 1992, part of the park was joined with the World Heritage Site in Poland to create a unique international European environmental site. In 1993, UNESCO designated it a biosphere reserve. In a survey of the threats to the Belarussian biodiversity, it is necessary to mention the density of the red deer population. These and other game animals have had a negative influence on the structure of the stand. In addition, a 2-meter high fence along the national border serves as an artificial barrier for most of these animals as well as for the European bison. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH The following factors cause Bialowieza Primeval Forest to be a special research: The exceptional natural state of the ecosystems, which have been altered only minimally by human activity; The strict protection of large areas (especially in Bialowieza National Park), which allow the possibility to conduct long-term investigations on permanent study plots; The presence in this Forest of complex zones which have varying levels of protection and human activity. Such zones include strict reservations, partial reservations, managed forests, forests designated for public tourism and recreation, and traditional farmland;
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 The biodiversity and genetic materials as well as numerous rare and endangered species of plants, fungi, and animals which are often relics of primeval forests; The exceptional biogeographical setting within the natural distribution range of numerous species of plants, animals, and types of vegetation; and The existing wealth of printed materials and documentation of the various studies conducted over almost a century. Publications on Bialowieza Primeval Forest include the four volumes of "Bibliography of Bialowieza Forest" (Karpinski J. J., Okolow C. 1967, Okolow C. 1976, 1983, 1991); the fifth volume of this bibliography is now at press. There is also an bibliography of the Belarusian part of the Forest (Koval'kov M. P. et all 1985). There are over 3,900 publications which present the results of various original investigations conducted in Bialowieza Forest. (Over 1,600 include the Bialowieza National Park). Polish Part Thanks to the creation of Bialowieza National Park in 1921, today there are five scientific institutions in surrounding villages: the Department of Natural Forests, the Forestry Research Institute, Bialowieza Geobotanical Station of Warsaw University, the Mammals Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Science, the Laboratory of Plant Population Demography of the Polish Academy of Science's Institute of Botany, and the Workshop of Ecology and Protection of Natural Habitats. Bialowieza National Park also has its own small research unit. In addition to the local research organizations, scientific institutes from all over the country carry out projects at the National Park. The Scientific Council of Bialowieza National Park (an advisory body for park authorities) coordinates all investigations in the park. Changes in stands free from human impact are investigated at numerous long-term research sites, the oldest of which date from 1936. Editors of scientific papers such as "Acta Theriologica", "Phytocoenosis", and "Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody" (National Parks and Nature Reserves) are in Bialowieza, where the results of the studies are published. Such papers are also presented during numerous seminars carried out in the park. Finally, Bialowieza National Park is the editor of European Bison Pedigree Book. Belarussian Part The national park "Belovezhskaja Pushha" has its own research division which conducts research on topics such as climatology, flora, vegetation, and zoology, with special attention to select groups of insects, birds, mammals and European bison. Investigations of the forest structure are carried out at permanent research sites, the oldest of which have existed for nearly 50 years. Until now, external scientific institutes were not engaged in research in the National Park. However,
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 interest in this unique research environment is growing, and if more funding becomes available, the number of institutes conducting research in the park will be increase. All investigations are accomplished under the coordination of the Scientific Council. In addition to the different research projects conducted in the park, the annual "Nature Chronicle" contains numerous systematic data concerning the course of phenology and other natural phenomena such as numbers of game and predatory animals or oak acorn crops. Employees of the national park participate in conferences and seminars where they present investigation results. The national park "Belovezhskaja Pushha" publishes its own periodical paper. Between 1958 and 1976, it issued a periodical called "Belovezhskaja PushhaIssle dovanija," which, since 1977, has been published under the name ''Zapovedniki Belorussii Issledovanija." Its contents include materials from all protected territories in Belarus. TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION The oldest area of cooperation is associated with the breeding of European bison. In 1961, the first Polish-Soviet conference on this subject took place, with subsequent conferences in 1963, 1967, and 1971. Irregular meetings have also been held without closer practical cooperation. Today, the situation is different. Directors of both national parks are officially members of the Scientific Councils of the park on either side of the border. Thanks to the support from GEF, a unified investigation was begun of air pollution and the impact of pollution on chosen indicator plants. Wide-ranging research on the genetics of native tree species was also begun, and the genetic bank was established. Traditionally, work has been coordinated on the ecology, biology, and physiology of the European bison. The year 1993 marked the beginning of the cooperative investigation using telemetry of the migration and range of wolves and lynxes. Signed in 1993, a protocol of cooperation for the park dictated that the park's employees can visit either part and participate in scientific conferences organized in Bialowieza or Kamieniuki. Employees can cross the state borders in the forest without an official border pass. Currently, the Academies of Sciences in both countries are trying to set up an international ecological institute located in Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Management and protective measures on both side of the border must be coordinated in order to allow the development of cooperation in the field of protection and investigation in Bialowieza Forest. It is necessary to find uniform methods of scientific investigation which enable researchers to compare results obtained in both parts of the forest. It is especially important to prepare a unified classification of vegetation. Because both countries currently use completely different geobotanical methods, the results of the work (vegetation maps) cannot be compared. Another problem vital to practical cooperation is the communication between management authorities of both parks. (Today, the only fail-safe method
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 of communication is telex. Other methods, for example, by telephone, take too much time and are not reliable.) REFERENCES Koval'kov M.P., Baljuk S.S., and Budnicheanko N.I. 1985 Bialowieza Primeval Forest. An Annotative Bibliography of Homeland Literature (1835-1983) ed. V.I. Parfenov, Minsk (Russian). Karpinski J.J., Okolow C. 1967 Bibliography of the Bialowieza Forest (up to the end of 1966), Warsaw. (Polish with English and Russian summary). Okolow C. 1976, 1983, 1991. Bibliography of the Bialowieza Forest. Bialowieza, Part II. 1967-1972, Part III. 1973 1980, Part IV. 1981 1985. (Polish with English and Russian summary).
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 THE TATRA NATIONAL PARK AND TRANSBOUNDARY BIOSPHERE RESERVE Zbigniew Krzan Tatra National Park The 217 km2 Tatra National Park (TNP), created in 1954, is now one of the largest of the 19 national parks in Poland. To the east, south, and west, TNP adjoins the Slovak Tatra Park, which is located across the border. The city of Zakopane and the Podhale region lie close to the northern park border. The lowest point of the park is 850 m above sea level, and the highest point, Mount Rysy, is 2,499 m above sea level. The eastern part of the TPN, the "High Tatras," is predominantly composed of crystalline rocks (granite) and has a typical high-mountain glacial landscape with pointed peaks and a large number of lakes. The largest lake is Morskie Oko, which covers 35 ha, while Wielki Staw Polski is the deepest, with a depth to 79 m. The "Western Tatras" are mostly composed of limestones and dolomites and have typical karstic relief with underground streams and about 500 caves. The zonation of plant communities is clearly visible in TNP and is closely related to altitude. The lower slopes are dominated by mixed forests which are structurally and ecologically diverse. Tree species include beech, silver fir, spruce, sycamore and many other woody plants. In addition, the area has secondary spruce forests, artificial stands vulnerable to disease, infestations of insects, and other problems associated with monocultures. Growing higher up, from about 1,250 meters above sea level, are coniferous stands of spruce and arolla pine. Most of this upper forest is natural or seminatural. Above the timber line (at about 1,500 m above sea level), these forests gradually merge with a zone dominated by dwarf mountain pine. In turn, towards the tops of the ridges and peaks, the dwarf mountain pine is replaced by alpine grassland and arctic-alpine communities associated with bare rock and scree. The area has many plant and animal species, including Tatra or Carpathian endemics, glacial relicts, and many endangered or rare species. The Tatra National Park is accessible for tourism, recreational skiing, and other sports. There is a well-developed and permanently-marked trail system for summer hiking, which has a total length of about 250 km and various levels of difficulty, ranging from typical walking paths to routes for experienced alpine climbers only. Park regulations permit tourists to walk on marked routes only, and
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 a fee is collected for entering the park. The developed tourist infrastructure is present in the town of Zakopane and nearby villages. The mountains themselves have a system of hostels and lodges which are open year-round, while the Park borders have parking areas, viewpoints, and restaurants. Both a cable car and chair lifts to Kasprowy Wierch summit allow those with different levels of expertise to participate in recreational skiing. There is also well-developed infrastructure for competitive skiing just inside the border of the park, with ski jumps, slalom slopes, down-hill runs, and cross-country areas. There are also designated areas for mountain climbing, with training centers and camping sites at various elevations. The Park has a visitor center and a program for ecological education. The center introduces visitors to the environment of the Tatras, the history of its protection, and current nature conservation problems through both permanent and temporary exhibitions, videos, and occasional lectures and slide presentations. The visitor center is surrounded by a garden which, by simulating the Tatra plant zones, allows educational activities to be organized for schoolchildren and interested groups of specialists. The guide center also provides information and sells publications concerning the mountain environment. Acting through four main departments (Forest Management, the Research Station and Museum, Touristic and Nature Protection, and Administration), the National Park Authority works towards the elimination or reduction of human activities, such as tourism and air and water pollution, which are likely to cause conflict with nature conservation. To achieve effective protection of TNP and its wildlife, it is essential that modern conservation legislation be in place. In 1991, a new state law on nature was passed which places the park management in a better position to negotiate with individuals and organizations concerned primarily with economic gain from activities in the park. The new law also enables TNP to exert influence over economic activities and development in areas next to the Park which could have an impact on the Park itself. In addition to effective legislation, a long-term management plan is needed which incorporates detailed plans for different habitats and threatened species or features. Plans for various aspects of management have already been drawn up, while others are still in preparation. To manage the National Park effectively, these different plans must be integrated in a single general strategy for the Park. Such a strategy, entitled a "Protection Plan for the Tatra National Park," is now in preparation. Finally, the Polish and Slovak Tatra National Parks have been approved as an International Biosphere Reserve within UNESCO's MAB Program (figure 1). The idea of establishing a Biosphere Reserve in the Tatra Mountains originated in the 1980s in the National Park Councils of both the Polish and Slovak areas of the mountains. Groups of experts began to work on a concept for a future Biosphere Reserve covering both National Parks. Park areas which are most valuable and least transformed by man have been included in the core zone of the Reserve, while surrounding areas constitute a buffer zone. Zonation became the subject of numerous consultations and negotiations aimed at obtaining a single, dense core
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TRANSBOUNDARY NATURAL SYSTEMS IN EASTERN POLAND AND A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STRATEGY Bozena Degorska Institute of Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Of all Poland's border areas, the one characterized by the greatest degree of geoecological diversification falls along the eastern edge of the country. This system of 11 physico-geographical transboundary regions of sub-provincial rank indicates the diversity of physico-geographical conditions and the valuable features of the landscape. In comparison, the western border crosses four physico-geographical regions and the southern border crosses six (Kondracki 1978). Notable types of landscape found along the eastern border include the following: coastal areas, the lakeland belt, the lowland belt, bog areas, uplands, foothills and mountains, and the valleys of the greater rivers. Cooperation currently developing between Poland and Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation, and Slovakia has opened the chance to carry out research in the eastern border zone. Agreements are also now possible on the protection and management of the environment in this area. Ecology agreements have led to work on the monitoring of border waters and on the creation of transboundary structures for the protection of nature. The latter are exemplified by the Eastern Carpathian International Biosphere Reserve between Poland and Slovakia and by the Bialowieza Biosphere Reserve between Poland and Belarus. Such strategies are indispensable since the boundaries of natural units cross national borders. Certain transboundary systems are open and are characterized by the most intensive exchanges of matter and energy with the surroundings (R. Chorley & B. Kennedy 1971). Included among the most dynamic natural elements are watercourses, which have become the major carriers of environmental pollution since industrialization began.
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 1 Direction of the Riverflow in the Cross-Boundary Rivers 1. Drainage basin of Vistula river; 2. Drainage basin of Vistula Lagoon; 3. Drainage basin of Neman; 4. Drainage basin of Dniepr; 5. Drainage basin of Dniestr; 6. Drainage basin of Danube; 7. Major water divide; 8. Water divide of 1 rank; 9. State border; 10. Direction of riverflow
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 The water quality of the rivers in the eastern border zone is unsatisfactory. Data from the State Environmental Protection Inspectorate show that in 1991 the quality of water in the larger rivers did not meet the statutory norms for physico-chemical and biological criteria. Waters of Quality Class III were only noted along short sections (3.7% of the Bug river, 3.2% of the Wieprz, 11.7% of the Wislok, 14% of the Elk, and 36% of the Pasleka). The best Class I water was restricted to the Biebrza and some lengths of the Suprasl. The high degree of pollution of the Bug is of particular concern since its drainage basin should meet the requirements of a protected drainage basin. Familiarity with the flow and boundaries of a drainage basin is necessary in order to recognize the geographical environment, especially for cases involving spatial planning, environmental protection, and ecology. Figure 1 schematically presents the flow of surface water in the eastern border zone. One can see that this zone lies within the drainage basins of two seas: the Baltic Sea (with drainage via the Vistula or Neman Rivers, or the Vistula Lagoon) and the Black Sea (with drainage via the Dnieper, Dniester or Danube). In order to distinguish transboundary ecological areas, analysis of physico-geographical features of the environment may be combined with an assessment of the ecological situation. In this way, the rank of transboundary ecological areas, dominant categories of protection, and areas of conflict may be identified. In the zone under analysis, the following major transboundary ecological areas should be included: Bieszczady Mountains, the border area between Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine; Roztocze area, on the border region between Poland and Ukraine; The drainage basin of the Bug River, on the borders of Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus; Bialowieza Primeval Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus; Mazurian/Lithuanian Lakeland, by the border between Poland and Lithuania; Vistual Lagoon, on the border area between Poland and the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation; and Romincka Forest, on the border area between Poland and the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation. The spatial aspects of these transboundary ecological areas have been categorized on the supranational, national, regional, and local scales. The supranational (international) scale has units which include natural links of European rank. These are:
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 the Bieszczady Mountains, as a unit of the Eastern Carpathians representing part of the whole Carpathian system; and the Mazurian/Lithuanian Lakeland, which is continuous (via the Pomeranian Lakeland) with the Mecklenburg Lakeland. The national scale has areas including links at the level of neighboring countries. These are: the Vistula Lagoon; the drainage basin of the River Bug; and Roztocze. The regional scale includes units having links which embrace border regions. These are: the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Puszcza Bialowieska). However, Bialowieza Forest should be considered on the national scale according to the highest value of natural forest ecosystems; and the Romincka Forest (Puszcza Romincka). The delimitation of transboundary ecological areas at the local level requires research along the border belt with depths down to about 20 km. It may be anticipated that this will result in the delineation of transboundary reserves or areas of ecological use. In the future, geoecological research on various spatial scales may provide a basis for the elaboration within spatial management plans of different scales of a system of transboundary protected areas for countries bordering Poland. It is to this end that natural research modeled on Polish methods has been conducted across the border in Ukraine. If transboundary ecological areas are classified on the basis of the dominant categories of environmental protection, additional studies must be conducted in some regions. However, as a general rule, the delimited areas may be classified in the following way (Fig. 2) into areas of strict or partial protection. Areas with a predominance of strict protection include: the Bialowieza Primeval Forest; and the Bieszczady Mountains. Areas with a predominance of partial protection include: the Mazurian/Lithuanian Lakeland; the Vistula Lagoon; Roztocze; the Romincka Primeval Forest (Puszcza Romincka); the Augustowska Primeval Forest; and the Podlasie Gap of the Bug River.
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 2 Classification of Transboundary Ecological Areas and Protection of the Natural Environment in the Eastern Polish Border Regions Biosphere Reserves MAB (a) - International Biosphere Reserve Bialowieza MAB (b) - International Biosphere Reserve Eastern Carpathian Mountains MAB (c) - Biosphere Reserve Lœuknajno Lake Wetland reserve of international importance A-Luknajno Lake National Parks (according to Denisiuk 1994, status for 1/1/1993) I - Wigry; II - Bialowieza; III - Polesie; IV - Roztocze; V - Bieszczady. Landscape Parks (according to Z. Denisiuk 1994, status for 1/1/1993, updated for Olsztyn voivodeship) 1 - Vistula Sand Bar; 2 - Elblag Rise; 3 - Ilawa Lakeland; 4 - Dylewskie Hills; 5 - Mazurian Landscape; Park; 6 - Suwalki Landscape Park; 7 - Knyszyn Primeval Forest; 8 - Narew Landscape Park; 9 - Leczynsko-Wlodawskie Lakeland; 10 - Sobibor Landscape Park; 11 - Chelm Landscape Park; 12 Strzelce Landscape Park; 13 - Szczebrzeszyn Landscape Park; 14 Krasnobrod Landscape Park; 15 Solska Pimeval Forest; 16 - Southern Roztocze Landscape Park; 17 - Przemysl Foothills; 18 - Slonne Mountains; 19 - San River Valley Landscape Park; 20 - Cisniansko-Wetlinski Landscape Park; 21 Jaslo Landscape Park In addition, two areas of conflict deserve special attention. The first of these concerns the Vistula Lagoon transboundary ecological area, where the problem of environmental contamination is acutely manifested. Both valuable biocenoses and environmental features around which tourism could develop lie in need of protection. This region has been selected by the State Environmental Protection Inspectorate as one of Poland's 27 areas which are threatened ecologically (GUS, 1993). The second conflict area is the drainage basin of the Bug River. The greatest water pollution occurs here because of multiple sources of contamination located in Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland. In fact, the area is a protected drainage basin where water quality of Class I or II is demanded. Efforts should be made to raise the water quality in the border river and in the entire drainage basin of the Bug as well as in the Vistula Lagoon through the construction of sewage treatment plants within the boundaries of their catchment basins. It will probably be difficult to solve the ecological problems in these regions because of huge expenses and the need for international solutions. The synthetic interpretation above has been prepared on the basis of this author's study of the ecological problems along Poland's eastern border (Degorska, 1992; 1993a; 1993b). The greatest difficulties were encountered in the compilation of material on the pollution of the environment in the areas bordering Poland and in cataloging an up-to-date inventory of protected areas. This paper is part of an extensive program of research entitled, "A Basis for the Development of Poland's Western and Eastern Border Areas." This research is
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 based at the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences, located in Warsaw, and is supervised by Professor A. Stasiak. The research embraces the nine most eastern voivodeships (provinces) of Poland (the voivodeships of Elblag, Olsztyn, Suwalki, Bialystok, Biala Podlaska, Chelm, Zamosc, Przemysl and Krosno) as well as four voivodeships in western Poland (Szczecin, Gorzow Wielkopolski, Zielona Gora, and Jelenia Gora). In total, these voivodeships cover approximately 96,700 km2. Within the scope of the work being carried out are issues relating to demography, settlement, transport, agriculture, ecology, trade, and tourism. Scientific cooperation with Germany, Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation has prompted international seminars and a number of field excursions which have enabled researchers to familiarize themselves with international factors of these issues. The results of the research have been included in bulletins of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences entitled, ''A Basis for the Development of Poland's Western and Eastern Border Areas". REFERENCES Chorley R., Kennedy B., 1971, Physical Geography: A System Approach, London Degorska B., 1992, Modele strukturalno-funkcjonalne w transgranicznych systemach przyrodniczych (w:) Edukacja ekologiczna i ochrona srodowiska na pograniczach, red. K. Wojciechowski, TWWP, Lublin Degorska B., 1993a, Problematyka ekologiczna wschodniego pogranicza Polski (w:) Podstawy rozwoju zachodnich i wschodnich obszarow przygranicznych Polski, Biuletyn Nr 2, IGiPZPAN, Warszawa Degorska B., 1993b, Problematyka pogranicza polsko-ukrainskiego (w:) Podtswy rozwoju zachodnich i wschodnich obszarow przygranicznych Polski, Biuletyn Nr 3, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa Kondracki J., 1978, Geografia fizyczna Polski, PWN, Warszawa, Ochrona Srodowiska, 1992, GUS, Warszawa
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 NEW MAPS ON THE USE OF AND THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN EUROPE Joanna Plit Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences New environmental maps of Central and Southern Europe have been created by an international group of cartographers in Vienna. Cartographic considerations have made it necessary to divide the subject of "Use of the Environment and Resultant Problems" into two parts and, hence, into two maps. Map A ("Use of the Environment") shows resource use, while Map B ("Environmental Problems") is devoted to ecological problems. The map scale of 1:3,000,000 required a high degree of generalization. The density of information required that some characteristics be omitted even though they were well documented and could otherwise have been included. Problems can be identified according to the impairment of the environment (qualitatively) or of natural resources (qualitatively or quantitatively). Impairment is determined by the extent to which components of the natural world have been changed and by the relative ability of these components to continue to function socio-economically. An international collective under the auspices of COMECON charted the environmental situation from the Elbe to the Urals and to the south as far as the Balkans. The result was a two-sheet, 1:2,500,000 map. The collective agreed upon all the data, often negotiating the course of divisions. In 1992, the Austrian Institute of East and South-East European Studies in Vienna edited the maps of the Atlas of Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences acknowledges the cooperation of a number of scientists. Tatjana Nefedova (Soviet Union), the editor-in-chief for the manuscripts, was responsible for coordinating the various national contributions. Oldrich Mikulik (Czechoslovakia), Laszlo Bassa (Hungary), and Joanna Plit (Poland) formed the editorial team with Tatjana Nefedova. National data and manuscripts were compiled by D. Doncev, M. Ilieva, M. Jordanova ans St. Veley (all three from
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Bulgaria), K. Kabelacova, A. Vaishar (both from Czechoslovakia), G. Schonfeleder (Germany), M. Spes (Yugoslavia), L. Bassa (Hungary), E. Tomasi (Austria), J. Plit (Poland), E. Zavoianu (Romania), T. Nefedova and I. Volkova (both from Soviet Union). On map A, color was used to indicate the intensity of environmental usage. An appropriate key was employed. Factors which were considered in calculating the index of usage included the structure of land use and per-hectare yield of the basic agricultural crops (cereals, potatoes, and hay), the number of adult livestock per hectare, the size of cuts in forests (in cubic meters per hectare), and the consumption of mineral fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land. Larger complexes of forest, marshes, and wilderness were also shown, as were protected areas such as Nature Reserves, Landscape Parks, and National Parks. Symbols indicated mines and nuclear power stations, and original summary bar graphs for each of the larger industrial centers showed environmental danger posed by various industrial branches. A delicate hachure in the background denoted the main tourist areas. It was accepted from the beginning that the intensity of use would be presented by administrative units, although units could be divided into parts (for example, in the case of the clear dichotomy of the Carpathian voivodeship (provinces) in Poland). Various authors used this principle freely. Map B illustrates the ecological problems caused by pollution as well as the exploitation and degradation of the natural environment. Different colors indicate where the air has been contaminated with compounds of sulphur, and the hachure reveals the level of soil degradation, groundwater deficits, deforestation, and degradation of forests through air pollution. Finally, lines indicate the pollution level of the main rivers and lakes and of the coastline zone. Points mark the principal polluters and the larger dumps of industrial waste. Ecological disaster areas are shown, as is the area contaminated after the explosion at Chernobyl (although this name is not to be found on the map). The maps and text describe an environmental situation which reflects the problems between 1985 and 1989. It must be hoped that the political and economic upheaval in the former socialist countries, especially the events of 1989 and 1990, will improve the attitudes of politicians and the general public toward the environment. A focus on the poor environmental situation has already led some countries to take action, while in other countries only discussions are in progress. The condition of Poland's environment was at its worst in the late 1980s. However, the situation is slowly improving as a result of the systematic steps taken to protect the environment. Some of these protective measures include the installation of sewage works, changes in production technologies, and closures of the most burdensome factories. The international nature of environmental problems is made clear by the National Parks of the Bieszczady and Tatra Mountains. The fact that the Carpathians are protected by the Slovak, Ukrainian, and Polish people does not
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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 prevent threats to the natural environment from pollution. This problem is presented in the extract from Map B (Figure 1). FIGURE 1 Pollution Map of the Carpathian Region
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Representative terms from entire chapter: