Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 13
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 I GENERAL ISSUES OF CONSERVATION OF PROTECTED AREAS
OCR for page 14
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page 15
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF VEGETATIONAL LANDSCAPES: PROBLEMS WITH EVALUATION Jerzy Solon Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences INTRODUCTION In light of the drastic changes taking place in land use, the over-exploitation of resources on a global scale, and the far-reaching climatic changes now being predicted, one of the basic tasks facing scientists and decision-makers is elaborating directions of economic development that preserve to the greatest possible extent the existing richness of living forms and their assemblages. The central concept in the management of nature understood in this way is the concept of biological diversity or biodiversity. Biodiversity in the widest sense is measured either by estimating richness (number of types of living organisms) in an area, or by one or more indices combining richness and relative abundance within an area. In some cases, instead of measuring diversity in an area, diversity within a typological unit of higher rank is measured (Wilson 1988). It therefore appears that three separate approaches to the analysis of biodiversity may be taken. These are: (a) the biogeographic approach, which concentrates on actions on the global scale and on the identification of the areas which are richest from the point of view of the number of taxa (Grehan 1993; Platnick 1992), (b) the taxonomic approach, which operates by way of cladistic diagrams concerning the differentiation within systematic units (Williams et al. 1991), and (c) the ecological or ecological-landscape approaches, which focus on the determination of biodiversity on local and regional scales as well as the identification of the mechanisms of dependence between the number of species and the surrounding processes and conditions (Lubchenco 1991). Where the first two approaches are concerned, one of the central issues in the maintenance of biological diversity is the relative importance for diversity of different areas, taxa, or ecosystems. However, this importance can be assessed in different, if related, ways. The first and most obvious way makes reference to "intrinsic" diversity and thus deems an area with higher diversity to be of greater importance than one with lower diversity. The second way involves attempts to
OCR for page 16
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 assess the contribution made by any given area to the overall diversity of a given geographic region. It is possible from this perspective that an area with lower intrinsic diversity may actually be more important than others with higher diversity (World Conservation … 1992). The overwhelming majority of the work done has been concerned with the analysis of biodiversity in the global, biogeographical interpretation, or else within one ecosystem type. Far rarer are works treating biodiversity at the level of the landscape or region (Baker 1990). The aim of this article is to present some of the relationships between aspects of diversity at different landscape levels and to highlight some of the misunderstandings and difficulties in interpretation which are connected with these approaches. The examples cited here are mainly derived from different regions of Poland and concern only the vegetation cover. LEVELS OF DIVERSITY In general, there are three classes of objects whose diversity is measured. These are genotypes, species, and communities (Gliwicz 1992). Each class can be related to either typological or spatial sequence and referenced to different areas (Table 1). Many different factors are involved in determining both the biodiversity of species within communities and the typological diversity of ecosystems within landscapes or regions. The most important of these factors are the ones connected with location (in terms of geography, the history of an area and the differentiation of the abiotic environment) as well as biocoenotic factors (ecosystem type, type of usage, degree of anthropogenic transformation, reaction to stress and disturbance, etc.). Furthermore, relative diversity is very often dependent upon the scale of measurement: 1 m2 of xerothermic grassland has more species than 1 m2 of tropical forest, but the relationship is reversed if the area considered is increased to 1 km2 (Wilson 1988; World Conservation … 1992; O'Brien 1993; Huntley 1993; Solon 1993). The diversity of vegetation cover within the landscape is a very complex phenomenon. Schematically, this may divided into three groups of phenomena (Table 1). The first group includes floristic diversity (species, growth forms, ecological groups, etc.). The second group includes synthetic characteristics which are the fundamental formal (numerical) descriptions of landscape diversity. In this interpretation, diversity signifies the physiognomic, ecological, and, above all, syntaxonomic differentiation of phytocoenoses in a given area. An important element in this group of characteristics is patchiness, or the overall number of patches (phytocoenoses). It is accepted that the greater the number of patches the greater the diversity (Baker 1989).
OCR for page 17
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TABLE 1 Compilation of the Most Often Defined Aspects of Diversity at Different Organizational Levels of Animate Nature OBJECT OF DIVERSITY MEASURE OBJECTS IN WHICH DIVERSITY IS DEFINED REFERENCE AREA Species level a) SPECIES a) NUMBER a) ECOSYSTEM a) WHOLE AREA b) OTHER TAXA (genera etc.) b) PROPORTION b) ECOSYSTEM TYPE (1 m2, 1 km2 etc.) b) UNIT OF AREA c) OTHER GROUPINGS OF SPECIES (growth forms, size classes, trophic levels, habitat requirement classes, range types, etc.) c) REGION (ecological, administrative, etc.) c) NON-AREAL MEASURE d) HIGHER-RANK TYPOLOGICAL CATEGORIES Landscape level, aspects independent of location a) ECOSYSTEMS a) NUMBER a) LANDSCAPE a) WHOLE AREA b) TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS b) PROPORTION b) REGION (etc.) b) UNIT OF AREA Landscape level, aspects dependent on location a) ECOSYSTEMS a) CONTRAST a) LANDSCAPE a) WHOLE AREA b) TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS b) NUMBER OF BOUNDARIES b) REGION (etc.) c) SHAPE INDEX The third group of characteristics influencing landscape diversity involves the spatial organization of phytocoenoses, the differentiation in their shapes and sizes, the degree of complexity of boundaries, and the number of neighboring patches, as well as the physiognomic, syntaxonomic, and usage contrasts between these patches. In contrast to the features of the second group (synthetic characteristics), whose values may be determined on the basis of statistical data, determinations of the features from the third group require detailed analysis of the spatial relations between the different communities. They may therefore be referred to as a group of analytical components of the overall diversity of the landscape (Solon 1995). There are two main factors which influence different aspects of vegetational diversity at the landscape level at the local scale. The first is the differentiation and spatial arrangement of habitats, which could be expressed in terms of potential vegetation; and the second is the land use structure and other anthropogenic
OCR for page 18
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 activities. So, landscape diversity must be viewed as resulting from the superimposition of two different vegetation patterns: (a) patterns related to the distribution of communities along gradients of limiting factors, and (b) patterns resulting from portions of the landscape being under different human influence and in different stages of recovery following disturbance. The relative contribution of these two kinds of pattern to overall landscape diversity is variable (Baker 1989, Solon 1990). The different aspects of the biological diversity of vegetation in the landscape are to a significant extent independent of one another and are clearly not additive. They also react in various ways to the different anthropogenic factors. This is particularly clear when comparisons are made between the biodiversity of objects belonging to different levels of organization in nature, different trophic levels or different systematic groups. In light of the aforementioned considerations, the well-known statement from Whittaker (1977) that ''a system made up of one herbivorous species and one predator species is more diverse than a system made up of two herbivores" does not represent a true assessment of the different systems. Evaluated jointly in this statement are the number of species and trophic levels, i.e., two different aspects of diversity which should be looked at separately. Using this method of evaluation, it may be asked which system is the more diverse: one containing ten herbivorous species, or one with two herbivores and one predator? An unequivocal answer cannot be given to questions formulated in this way. In relation to taxonomic diversity, Prendergarst et al. (1993) give data for Great Britain which show that there is often a lack of coincidence between species-rich areas for different taxa and also that many rare species are absent from the areas with the highest species diversity. THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON DIVERSITY WITHIN VEGETATIONAL LANDSCAPES It has been observed many times that conditions of moderately intensive anthropogenic activity sustain a greater spatial diversity of vegetation in the landscape than areas in which there is no such activity (Suffling 1988; Huston 1979). This is an analogous relationship to the change in the species richness described earlier for phytocoenoses. In the 1970s, Grime (1979) drew up a model in which the number of species, life strategies, total standing crops, and level of disturbance were all linked together. It was suggested in the model that moderate intensities of stress and/or disturbance increased species richness by reducing the vigour of potential dominants and thus allowing subsidiary species to coexist alongside them. However, the model went on to suggest that species richness declines once stresses and/or disturbances rise to extreme levels and as there arise conditions to which only a very small number of species are sufficiently well-adapted to survive (Grime 1979; Reader, Taylor, and Larson 1991).
OCR for page 19
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 In the conditions of Central Poland, the greatest values of indices for the diversity of phytocoenoses are noted in vegetational landscapes with average or moderately high levels of anthropogenic disturbance. This is particularly clear in the well-developed suburban zones. On the other hand, clearly lower values for indices of diversity are noted for both intensively-used agricultural landscapes and landscapes subject to low pressures from man and characterised by a significant proportion of near-natural communities (Fig. 1) (Solon 1995). The actual level of diversity within different landscapes is also greatly dependent upon the history of the spatial system (Law & Morton 1993). Solon (1994) analysed the role of successive increases and decreases of anthropogenic FIGURE 1 Relationships between the Anthropogenic Disturbance and Vegetation Diversity According to Maxwell Distribution Model for 29 Vegetation Microlandscapes in the vicinity of Wigry Lake. X axis - 0.1 × (number of houses); Y axis - actual vegetation diversity according to modified Shannon's formula 10 × [1-H(E)/H(E, P)] (after Solon 1995).
OCR for page 20
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 activity and was able to demonstrate that vegetational micro-landscapes presently characterised by the same level of anthropogenic disturbance have a vegetation cover of distinctly greater actual diversity if they had been subject to increasing pressure within the last thirty years. In contrast, micro-landscapes in which anthropogenic activities had experienced systematic decline had actual vegetational diversity that was lower. In addition, a clear lack of an unequivocal relationship between different variables is observed within the analytical components of the total diversity of a vegetational landscape. It was concluded from detailed studies in the area of Lake Wigry (Table 2) that there were only weak and usually statistically-insignificant correlations between five characteristics of phytocoenoses (habitat type, degree of anthropogenic deformation, mean patch size, number of neighboring patches, and an index of shape). The type of habitat and the degree of anthropogenic deformation were found to have a significant influence on the mean sizes of patches of plant communities (correlation coefficient 0.43). However, this linkage is rather complicated. In general, the higher the level of anthropogenic deformation of the vegetation, the smaller the sizes of the different patches. However, at the same level of deformation, the patches of relatively the smallest size are those occurring in wet areas, while the largest ones are those in dry areas (Solon, in print). The shape index of phytocoenoses is clearly, though weakly, correlated with both the level of deformation and the number of neighbors. The higher the level of anthropogenic deformation of a given phytocoenosis, the lower the value of the shape index. This indicates, in other words, that patches have more regular shapes and are closer to squares. On the other hand, patches enclosed by a greater number TABLE 2 Changes in the Vegetation Cover of Meadows in the Valley of the River Nida near Mlodzawy Vegetation (Solon 1993) 1961r. 1985r. Number of community types 14 13 Number of types common to both periods 6 6 Number of separate patches 21 17 Index of typological similarity* 0.44 Local flora (Roo-Zielinska 1993) 1961r. 1985r. Number of specie 374 361 Number of species common to both periods 323 323 Index of typological similarity* 0.88 * Index of typological similarity calculated in accordance with the formula 2c/(a+b); where c = number of types common to both periods; a = number of types in the first period; b = number of types in the second period
OCR for page 21
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 of other communities are characterised by very irregular and most often elongated boundaries. In contrast, there is no significant correlation between the size of a patch and the shape index. A separate issue is the independence of changes in biological diversity under the influence of anthropogenic activity taking place at various levels of organization. For example, drainage work carried out at the beginning of the 1960s led to changes in land use in the Nida Valley around Pinczow. This in turn led to changes in the actual vegetation and local flora (Table 3, Fig. 2). There were slight declines in both the number of inventoried plant communities and the overall species richness. Nevertheless, the changes in the vegetation were considerably greater than those in the flora, and it was therefore necessary to conclude that, beyond the changes in the inventory of communities, there had been fundamental changes in their distributions (Roo-Zielinska 1993; Solon 1993). The results give a clear indication that the influence of anthropogenic activity on changes in components of the overall diversity of vegetational landscapes is multitracked and often leading in different directions. On the one hand, there may often be a rise in overall diversity (by way of an increase in the number of types of vegetation patch and/or the number of patches), but on the other hand there may be a reduction in the diversity (as a consequence of the simplification of the structure by which communities neighbour one another and a decline TABLE 3 Correlations between Selected Surface Characteristics of Plant Communities in the Environs of Lake Wigry (Solon 1995) VARIABLES 2 3 4 5 1 0.61*** 2 -0.26* 3 0.52*** 4 0.28* 5 6 0.43** Significance level: ***0.001; **0.01; *0.05. 1-habitat type 2-anthropogenic deformation 3-patch size 4-number of neighboring patches 5-shape index 6-habitat and deformation together
OCR for page 22
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 2 Actual Vegetation of the Fragment of Nida Valley (after Solon 1993). A) in 1961, B) in 1985. 1) Caricetum ripariae; 2) Caricetum gracilis phragmitetosum; 3) Caricetum gracilis typicum; 4) Caricetum gracilis caricetosum nigrae; 5) Phragmitetum; 6) Caricetum paniculatae; 7) Caricetum acutiformis; 8) Carici-Agrostietum; 9) Caricion davallianae; 10) community intermediate between Caricion Molinion and Calthion; 13) Epilobio-Juncetum; 14) CirsioPolygonetum var. davallianae and Calthion; 11) Molinion; 12) community intermediate between with Lathyrus palustris; 15) Cirsio-Polygonetum var. with Cerastium arvense; 16) community intermediate between Cirsio- Polygonetum and Cirsium canum-Cirsium rivulare community; 17) Cirsium canum-Cirsium rivulare community, var. with Carex nigra; 18) Cirsium canum-Cirsium rivulare community, typical variant; 19) Arrhenatheretum; 20) Diantho-Armerietum; 21) Salici-Populetum; 22) Ribo-Alnetum; 23) other communities. in the shape index). It would therefore seem that the current state of knowledge makes it difficult to anticipate the quantitative character of topological changes in components of diversity under the influence of changes in anthropogenic activity. CONCLUSIONS In many cases, and particularly in cultural landscapes which, after Naveh (1988), can be characterised as heterogenic, small-grained, and metastable agricultural landscapes, it is impossible to preserve all aspects of diversity
OCR for page 23
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 simultaneously. More than once this has led to serious conflicts in planning protective measures. These conflicts may be of different types, including those between the tendencies to renaturalize or conserve nature, those involving the protection of the diversity in one group at the expense of another, or those between the protection of diversity in one place and the reduction of diversity over considerably greater areas. Actions giving rise to increases in typological diversity in spatial units may, in extreme cases, lead to structural and functional chaos in the vegetation of a given landscape system. One of the causes of such conflicts is the lack of an appropriate conceptual apparatus for the formal description, comparison, and evaluation of different structural and functional aspects of biological systems at the landscape level, which jointly make up its biodiversity. A second cause is the joint treatment of different elements (aspects) of diversity, with no consideration given to their origins, ecological character, or qualitative variability. The third and final cause is the identification of the diversity of ecosystems with their value. This often leads to great misunderstandings in the evaluation of the quality of landscape units. In spite of the aforementioned limitations, there is a widespread tendency to treat biodiversity as an absolute and superior value, as the most important index in the planning of all activities related to nature conservation and the management of the environment. In the view of Bowman (1993) "… the word 'biodiversity' suffers the problem of reification, the treatment of an abstract idea as if it were a thing." An approach based on the evaluation and protection of diversity cannot replace other traditional framework concepts on which nature conservation has been based. In reality, diversity and the threats to it should rather be one of many criteria aiding decision-making. REFERENCES Baker W.L., 1989, A Review of Models of Landscape Change, Landscape Ecology 2, 111-133. Baker W.L. 1990, Species Richness of Colorado Riparian Vegetation, Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 119-124. Bowman D.M. 1993, Biodiversity: Much More than Biological Inventory, Biodiversity Letters 1.6: 163-163. Gliwicz J. 1992, Roznorodnosc Biologiczna: Nowa Koncepcja Ochrony Przyrody (Biological Diversity: A New Concept of Nature Conservation), Wiad. Ekol. 38.4: 211-219. Grehan J.R. 1993, Conservation Biogeography and the Biodiversity Crisis: A Global Problem in Space/Time, Biodiversity Letters 1.5: 134 -140. Grime J.P. 1979, Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes, J. Wiley & Sons, 222 pp. Huntley B. 1993, Species-richness in North-Temperate Zone Forests, Journal of Biogeography 20: 163-180. Huston M. 1979, A General Hypothesis of Species Diversity, Am. Naturalist 113: 81-101. Law R., Morton R.D. 1993, Alternative Permanent States of Ecological Communities, Ecology 74(5): 1347-1361.
OCR for page 44
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Regional Differences in the History of Human Effects on Rivers Flowing water systems are a legacy of historical processes operating within the landscape (e.g., Decamps et al. 1988). The relative intensity and duration of interactions between humans and the watersheds in which they live has been greater in some areas of the world relative to others. Different geographic areas are affected by a diverse array of environmental problems that reflect both ecological properties and socio-economic processes. As stated by Boon (1992), populations grow, nations industrialize, global water demand increases, and thus the effects of man on rivers change in diversity extent and permanence. The historical sequence of river development in Europe (Petts 1987) from past to present includes: subsistence fishery, commercial fishery, recreational fishing, floodplain reclamation, navigation, pollution, dams, and now conservation. Some of these human activities that are potentially damaging to river systems have decreased in intensity or remained stable depending on the geographic area. In Britain for instance, construction of large dams passed through several decades of rapid growth, but now appears to be leveling off (Boon 1992). In rapidly developing countries (e.g., Brazil and India), pollutants that ''gradually" might have appeared in North American and European rivers over a century or more are rapidly building up in the compressed time frame of a few decades (Boon 1992). In Poland, where 60% of all lakes are severely polluted (Postel 1992), there has been a relatively long history of heavy human settlement in the landscape with a consequently longer period for cultural eutrophication to occur. Key sociopolitical landmarks in the history of Central Europe have had a profound effect on the level of environmental degradation. As is the case for many Central European countries in transition, intensive development/industrialization during the Soviet Era resulted in the degradation of aquatic systems at a level of magnitude greater than what much of the western world has experienced. The post-World War II Era was characterized by a lack of science-based policy and environmental management. In Poland, high quality drinking water has dropped from 32% to less than 5% during the last twenty years. Over half of Poland's river water is too contaminated even for industrial use (Postel 1992). Pollution in surface waters is increasing due to contamination by industry and municipal sewage discharges as well as by agricultural sources. Shortages of acceptable quality water also limit economic activity within Poland. Drainage projects have led to lowered groundwater tables and excessive drying of considerable areas of land, and increasing needs for water have led to further stresses on water supply. The area of excessively dried land in Poland amounts to approximately 4 million hectares. Increased drying of the central region of Poland is also associated with high degrees of deforestation, particularly in those area where forest cover is below 15% (Ryszkowski 1990). It has been noted that water quality problems in Poland resemble those that were familiar to the United States over two decades ago, before the U.S. undertook
OCR for page 45
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 massive water cleanup and sewage treatment programs (e.g., Hillbricht-Ilkowska 1990; Cooper 1990; Gromiec 1990). EMERGING CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FOR AQUATIC SYSTEMS Regional differences in emerging conservation and management strategies reflect the history of human effects on the environment and current socio-economic conditions. Szaro (1996, this volume), for example, relates the historical progression of national conservation strategies in the United States. A feature of recent policy developments in river conservation in the western world is a broadening of views by scientists, managers, and conservationists. All of these different groups are expanding their perspective from a reductionist perspective to a landscape perspective. Reductionist science is now moving away from a stream segment approach to looking at the entire basin. River management policy makers are realizing that "everyone lives downstream," that downstream events/processes can affect areas upstream, and that events/processes in different catchments frequently affect upstream areas. Reductionist conservationists are now looking beyond the channel, and conservation organizations have moved away from their preoccupation with streams based solely on recreation and aesthetics. Broader-based training for aquatic resource managers that encompasses an understanding of ecosystem connectivity and landscape linkages is becoming increasingly adopted within the United States, with strong proponents in both aquatic science and conservation biology (Doppelt 1993). In the United States, implementation of this broader-based thinking at the management level is being catalyzed by recent collaboration between conservation groups and aquatic scientists (Dewberry and Pringle 1994). Conservation groups have expanded their perspectives from addressing local issues at the scale of 'river reach' to recognizing the need for protection and restoration strategies that consider whole drainage basins or landscapes. Concurrently, scientists are expanding their focus from site-specific studies to drainage level studies and to the still larger landscape scale (e.g., Stanford and Ward 1993). Since successful development of a predictive science of ecological management must consider socio-economic and political realities, scientists can benefit from the broader perspective that conservation groups bring to the problem. With agreement among both scientists and conservation groups on the extent of the degradation of the North American river systems, there is common ground for addressing the needed changes in national policy (e.g., Coyle 1993; Doppelt et al. 1993; Anderson 1993; Brouha 1993; Pringle and Aumen 1993; Richter 1993; Woody 1993; Duff 1993). Most countries in Central and Eastern Europe are moving to a full market economy. The dominant processes in this transitional period are economic openness, privatization, and restructuring. Despite many positive aspects, there is a concern that these processes may bring about negative effects for the natural environment (i.e., in the rush to achieve privatization, Central and Eastern
OCR for page 46
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 European countries might encourage unsustainable development: Is the model of the western consumer lifestyle a good option for sustainability?). The questions arise: How can this period of transition be used as an opportunity to carry out sustainable restructuring in an environmentally healthy manner? How can Central and Eastern European countries in transition benefit from emerging western conservation strategies? Projects such as the Green Lungs of Poland (GLP) and the Green Lungs of Europe (GLE) are addressing these questions by attempting to create a macro-regional network of protected regions (throughout Poland and Europe) that are rich in biodiversity. As in the United States and Britain, increased collaboration between scientists and non-government organizations involved in conservation issues could be a powerful force in the development of environmental reforms in countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe. While Polish scientists are well aware of the serious magnitude of the problems that face aquatic systems in their country, not only must the economic resources be developed to implement necessary changes, but internal public support must be developed for environmental remediation and environmentally sound legislation. As pointed out by the GLP, society's participation in the process of decision-making constitutes a challenge for nationals of countries who, for half a century, had no experience with such forms of governance and state functioning. However, as the magnitude and severity of regional environmental pollution in Central and Eastern Europe challenge conservation and management strategies developed in the West, scientists and NGOs in Central and Eastern Europe may devise drastic solutions for which public support will be difficult to obtain. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION To effectively address the serious environmental problems affecting the planet, massive collaboration clearly must be achieved on both local and regional levels. There is an urgent need for regional watershed-level management that transcends political boundaries. Cooperative arrangements between Central European nations in managing their transboundary protected areas can serve as a model for development of more complex international networks. The Danube River is a dramatic example of the mismatch between the scale of ecological processes and the jurisdictional boundaries of management authority. It has a drainage area that spans at least 12 different nations covering 70% of Central Europe with a population of over 80 million people. Domestic and industrial wastes and the lack of primary sewage treatment in many large cities and towns throughout the drainage basin, in combination with severe economic problems, are among many formidable obstacles impeding the development of effective management and restoration strategies for the Danube River, its delta, and the receiving waters of the Black Sea (Pringle et al. 1993b). In the long run, only strong local and international cooperation will improve the environmental situation
OCR for page 47
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 of the Danube Delta. The environmental security for the entire Danube Basin depends on the health of the river and its Delta. In conclusion, as increasing friction occurs between nations over water as a rare resource (Postel 1993), countries will increasingly find themselves in the situation of those in Central and Eastern Europe, which are developing conservation strategies which shift to conform to changing political boundaries and socio-economic conditions. It would behoove the international conservation community to closely observe and learn from this process and to facilitate it when possible. REFERENCES Anderson, H. M. 1993. Conserving America's Freshwater Ecosystems: The Wilderness Society's Approach. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 194-196. Boon, P. J. 1992. Essential Elements in the Case for River Conservation, pp. 11-33. In: P. J. Boon, P. Calow and G. E. Petts. River Conservation and Management. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., NY. Brouha, P. 1993. The Emerging Science-Based Advocacy Role of the American Fisheries Society. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 215-218. Cohn, J. P. 1992. Central and Eastern Europe Aim to Protect their Ecological Backbone. BioScience 42: 810-814. Cooper, W. E. 1990. Aquatic Research and Water Quality Trends in the United States and Poland, pp. 297-314. In: W. Grodzinski, E. B. Cowling and A. I. Breymeyer (eds.) Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Coyle, K. J. The New Advocacy for Aquatic Species Conservation. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 185-188. Decamps, H., M. Fortune, F. Gazelle, and G. Pautou. 1988. Historical Influence of Man on the Riparian Dynamics of a Fluvial Landscape. Landscape Ecology 1: 163-173. Dewberry, T. C. and C. Pringle. 1994. Lotic Conservation and Science: Moving Towards Common Ground to Protect our Stream Resources. Journal of the North American Benthological Society (in press). Doppelt, R. 1993. The Vital Role of the Scientific Community in New River Conservation Strategies. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 189-193. Doppelt, B. M. Scurlock, C. Frissel, and J. Karr. 1993. Entering the Watershed. Island Press, Washington D.C. Duff, D. A. 1993. Conservation Partnerships for Coldwater Fisheries Habitat. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 206-210. Gromiec, M. J. 1990. River Water Quality Assessment and Management in Poland. pp. 315-332. In: W. Grodzinski, E. B. Cowling and A. I. Breymeyer (eds.) Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, A. 1992. Assessment of Trophic Impact on the Lake Environment in Poland: A Proposal and Case Study. pp. 283-296. In: W. Grodzinski, E. B. Cowling and A. I. Breymeyer (eds.) Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Kajak, Z. 1992. The River Vistula and its Floodplain Valley (Poland): Its Ecology and Importance for Conservation. pp. 35-50. In: P. J. Boon, P. Calow, and G. E. Petts (eds.) River Conservation and Management. John Wiley and Sons, NY. Lee, R. G., R. Flamm, M. G. Turner, C. Bledsoe, P. Chandler, C. DeFerrari, R. Gottfried, R. J. Naiman, N. Schumaker, and D. Wear. 1992. Integrating Sustainable Development and Environmental
OCR for page 48
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Vitality: A Landscape Approach. pp 499-521. In: R. J. Naiman (editor) Watershed Management: Balancing Sustainability and Environmental Change. Springer-Verlag, NY. Lubchenco, J., A. M. Olson, L. B. Brubaker, S. R. Carpenter, M. M. Holland, S. P. Hubbell, S. A. Levin, J. A. MacMahon, P. A. Matson, J. M. Melillo, H. A. Mooney, C. H. Peterson, H. R. Pulliam, L. A. Real, P. J. Regal, and P. G. Risser. 1991. The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative: An Ecological Research Agenda. Ecology 72: 371-412. Naiman, R. J., H. Decamps, and M. Pollack. 1993. The Role of Riparian Corridors in Maintaining Regional Biodiversity. Ecological Applications 3: 209-212. Petts, G. E. 1987. Ecological Management of Regulated Rivers; A European Perspective," Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 1: 358-363. Postel, S. 1992. Last oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. The Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series. W. W. Norton and Company, NY. Pringle, C. M., and N. G. Aumen 1993. Current Efforts in Freshwater Conservation. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 174-176. Pringle, C. M., C. F. Rabeni, A. Benke and N. G. Aumen. 1993a. The Role of Aquatic Science in Freshwater Conservation: Cooperation between the North American Benthological Society and Organizations for Conservation and Resource Management. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 177-184. Pringle, C. M., G. Vellidis, F. Heliotis, D. Bandacu, and S. Cristofor. 1993b. Environmental Problems in the Danube Delta. American Scientist 81: 350-361. Richter, B. D. 1993. Ecosystem level Conservation at the Nature Conservancy: Growing Needs for Applied Research in Conservation Biology. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 197-200. Ryzkowski, L. 1990. Ecological Guidelines for Management of Rural Areas in Poland . pp. 249-264. In: W. Grodzinski, E. B. Cowling and A. I. Breymeyer (eds.) Ecological Risks: Perspectives from Poland and the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Stanford, J. A. and J. V. Ward. 1993. An Ecosystem Perspective of Alluvial Rivers: Connectivity and the Hyporheic Corridor. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 48-60. Tomialojcia, L. (ed.) 1993. Nature and Environment Conservation in the Lowland River Valleys of Poland. Instytutu Ochrony Przyrody (PAN). Turner, B. L. W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews, and W. B. Meyer (eds). 1993. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, NY, 713 p. Woody, T. 1993. Grassroots in Action: The Sierra Club's Role in the Campaign to Restore the Kissimmee River. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 12: 201-205. Wrobel, S. (Ed.) 1989. Zanieczyszczenia atmosfery a degradacja wod, Materialy sympozjum, Zaklad Ochrony Przyrody i Zasobow Naturalnych, Krakow.
OCR for page 49
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 PRESENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF MAB BIOSPHERE RESERVES Boguslaw Bobek, Beata Kabza, Dorota Merta and Kajetan Perzanowski Jagiellonian University For the protection of valuable natural habitats, the concept of the Biosphere Reserve is rapidly developing. According to the authors of this paper, this development can be attributed to the fact that National Parks (until recently the basic structure protecting valuable natural habitats) have now fulfilled their historic mission and have exhausted the possible future options in nature conservancy as a result of various barriers to their development. It is only in the last ten years or so that people have started to realize that natural ecosystems protected in National Parks are reduced to small islands isolated in an environment altered by man (Harris 1984, Verner et al. 1980, Gilbert and Dodds 1987). For example, recent studies on the home ranges and territories of large ungulates and predators have shown that only a few National Parks encompass a full-year's home range (Harestad and Bunnel 1979, Hemker 1984, Sweanor and Sandergreen 1991). Even such a large park as Yellowstone does not cover the whole home range of the local elk population, which has its winter range in the neighborhood of the park (Boyce and Hayden-Wing 1979). Furthermore, it is very rare for a park to overlap with the ranges of rare and protected populations of mammals and birds (Seitz and Loeschke 1991). In light of this, it is clear that to assure the proper development of wildlife populations, it is necessary to make mutual contact possible by creating "ecological corridors" (Forman and Gordon 1986, Noss and Harris 1986). Some more realistically-thinking ecologists have realized that there are few if any future possibilities for the creation of new large protected areas by the extension of already existing ones or by establishing new units. Both cases entail large and unavoidable expenses from the state budget, as well as conflicts with local inhabitants, who, through democratic structures, may effectively influence political and economic decisions to protect their own economic or cultural interests. Such a recognition has stimulated conceptual work on a new model of large protected areas. This "multiple use module" (Harris 1984) encompasses fragments of natural ecosystems, which should become the central "core" area, as well as ecosystems exploited or altered by man, which could play the role of buffer zones. Buffer zones are gradually becoming more and more frequent around National
OCR for page 50
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Parks (Dasmann 1981), and good examples of such projects exist in Florida and southern Ohio (Noss 1987). The creation of a model of large protected areas has also become the task of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) under the Man and Biosphere (MAB) program. From the beginning it was quite clear that effective nature protection over substantial areas would not be possible if the cooperation of local inhabitants were not assured. This cooperation could be achieved by the demonstration of the sustainable use of natural resources around the core area, i.e., buffer and transition zones. For example, in Africa the well-developed network of National Parks does not prevent densities of protected and threatened species from depending on cooperation with people inhabiting surrounding areas (Parker and Graham 1989). Unfortunately, such truths are often forgotten by enthusiasts of new or extended National Parks, who in effect aim at creating fictional systems of nature conservancy that exist only on paper. It is therefore important that the principles of Biosphere Reserves should be clearly explained in non-technical terms to local inhabitants, who are often against the very idea of nature conservancy due to a mistaken association of biospheres with the system of restrictions and prohibitions typical of national parks. It is generally agreed that the overall goals of establishing and maintaining a Biosphere Reserve are: The preservation of natural or little disturbed ecosystems in the core area; The conservation or restoration of ecosystems in the buffer zone; and The rational and sustainable use of resources, mostly in the transition zone. Fulfilling the above tasks should be the duty of a specially-created administration of a Biosphere Reserve, together with scientific and educational teams. The growing necessity for the preservation of existing biodiversity and the need to slow down the deterioration of natural habitats requires research oriented towards practical aspects of resource management (UNESCO 1984, 1987). Therefore, the research team in a Biosphere Reserve should formulate specific tasks to be executed by the administration. Some tasks will differ for each Biosphere Reserves, but those common to all or most are: The creation of a workplan for landscape management (tourist trails, roads, constructions, etc.) to minimize human pressure on the core area; Management of the transition zone, with the implementation of modern methods, techniques, and models allowing for the sustainable use of natural resources by local people; The education of local people and the restructuring of employment to reduce the unemployment rate in the transition zone to a minimum;
OCR for page 51
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 The coordination of economic development by attracting job creating enterprises and by marketing local products, as well as the coordination of scientific research; and The launching of research projects important for all three zones of a Biosphere Reserve and the monitoring of pollution, endangered species, and fragile ecosystems. At present, there are over 300 Biosphere Reserves around the world, and the number is still growing. However, analysis of the data on these reserves evokes doubts as to whether all fulfill the requirements laid down for this new conservation unit. According to UNESCO, people are an integral part of a Biosphere Reserve, with various forms of natural resource management being included in long-term plans for land use and with the resulting landscape patterns conserved and considered essential features of the Reserve. The direct involvement of local communities in the management of natural resources is crucial if society is to accept the requirements imposed by nature conservancy and if there is to be further successful development of a reserve. To ensure that this social acceptance is obtained, a Biosphere Reserve should evolve as economic and demographic changes proceed in the region, albeit with its protective functions maintained at the same time (von Droste and Gregg 1985; Kabza 1994). A Biosphere Reserve should consist of three major zones: a centrally-located core area should usually offer strict protection to the most valuable and/or endangered habitats; a buffer zone should support most of the research projects, as well as the development and testing of new management approaches, educational programs, etc.; and finally the transition zone should typically serve as an area in which to integrate nature conservation with the sustainable use of natural resources (UNESCO 1987; Breymeyer 1994). Basically, a Biosphere Reserve should be beneficial to local communities in that it improves their social and economic status (Bobek et al. 1994). One of the essential functions of a Biosphere Reserve is also to provide educational and training opportunities for scientists, students, managers, and local people in both ecology and environment protection (UNESCO 1984). Described above are the theoretical requirements for Biosphere Reserves. However, according to the environmental database on the scientific infrastructure of 175 Biosphere Reserves in 32 countries (Access 1993), research topics and the structure of management in most Biosphere Reserves do not differ fundamentally from those in National Parks. The reason is simply that as many as 107 (61%) of the Reserves are managed by National Park Administrations or similar services whose main function is the preservation and conservation of natural ecosystems. Research projects potentially beneficial to local communities are only carried out 62 biosphere reserves (35.4%), and only 17 biosphere reserves (about 10%) declare the existence of projects which could create a sustainable economy for the people inhabiting the transition zone. Quite surprising also is the number of biosphere reserves which consist of a core area only (Kabza 1994).
OCR for page 52
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Thus, the rapid increase in the number of biosphere reserves around the world will not ensure credibility will unless programs meeting the requirements and needs of local people are introduced. The prevailing impression to date is that most biosphere reserves exist only formally or follow programs typical for National Parks. This is also the result of a the lack of legal status for biosphere reserves in most countries. Leaving the management of biosphere reserves to National Park Administrations has caused a loss of identity, with the created structures being neither National Parks nor Biosphere Reserves. It is not uncommon for the administration of the National Park managing the Biosphere Reserve to come to understand that the status of a biosphere reserve allows for the exploitation of natural resources through logging, the building of ski lifts, hunting etc. (Michalowski 1994). But the undertaking of such activities by them leads only to competition with local people, bringing them more losses than gains. One of the biosphere reserves of southern Poland may serve as on example here. The administration decided to buy a number of saddled horses for visitors to rent, along with a guide, in order to see the Park (the core area of the biosphere reserve) from horseback. At the same time, however, local stud owners living in the transition zone are only allowed to guide tourists around the Park after paying high fees and are therefore effectively eliminated from the tourist business in the area. It would seems also that the very idea of biosphere reserves should be more widely and more effectively conveyed by the mass media. The majority of society is under-informed, associating biosphere reserves with structures protecting valuable natural areas, but at the same time regarding them as areas with more restrictions than National Parks. In countries where the name "Biosphere Reserves" has been translated badly, many local people even associate them with the Indian Reservations in North America. CONCLUSIONS Conferring the status of Biosphere Reserve upon a certain area should take place in those countries in which there is an established legal basis upon which they can function. These countries having Biosphere Reserves without established legal status for them should be required by UNESCO to pass appropriate legislation and should have their nominations withdrawn if such a legal status for Biosphere Reserves is not enacted after a reasonable period of time. National Parks should become only core areas of biosphere reserves. Suggested are revisions of Park boundaries to allow them to meet the criteria required for the core area. A rigorous principle of removal or restraint upon nominations should be applied to National Parks which do not care for the sustainable development of the surrounding regions and for the basic needs of the local population (Batisse 1992).
OCR for page 53
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 The future administration of Biosphere Reserves should include representatives of local communities and the important government institutions (like State Forest Administrations, branches of local government, etc.) involved within them. To improve the effectiveness of a biosphere reserve, its design should, if possible, recognize not only the most valuable natural habitats but also administrative boundaries. It is necessary to review the administration of Biosphere Reserves in accordance with the basic rule that every biosphere reserve has to carry out scientific and training projects oriented not only to nature conservation but also recognizing the needs of local people regarding the achievement of a sustainable economy. A serious problem for the effective operation of a Biosphere Reserve is the proper selection of its managerial staff. The multi-functional character of Biosphere Reserves requires a specific approach to the management of the area and involves such tasks for the staff as the development of educational and training programs for local communities, the creation of a sustainable economy within the transition zone, involvement in exchange programs, and research projects. So far, existing information on management and scientific activity is available for core areas only, and generally there is a total lack of publications on the role, tasks, perspectives and designs of biosphere reserves (MAB 1993, Gregg 1984). Biosphere Reserves have a great chance to become a dominant structure in nature conservancy in the 21st century, but they may also end up in the lumber-room of history as another potentially good idea which did not achieve its full potential in practice. REFERENCES ACCESS. 1993. MAB. A Directory of Contacts, Environmental databases, and Scientific Infrastructure of 175 Biosphere Reserves of 175 Countries. Dept. of State Publ. 10059. Battisse 1982. The Biosphere Reserve - A Tool for Environmental Conservation and Management. Env. Cons. 9,2: 101-111. Bobek B., Kabza B., Merta D., and Perzanowski K. 1994. The Concept of the Eastern Carpathians Biosphere Reserve - Present Status and Perspectives. J.Wildl. Res. 1: 000-000 (in print). Boyce M.S. and Hayden-Wing L.S.(eds.) 1979. North American Elk: Ecology, Behavior and Management. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie. Breymeyer A.(ed.) 1994. Rezerwaty Biosfery w Polsce. Polski Narodowy Komitet MAB. 156 pp. Dasmann R.F. 1981. Wildlife Biology. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons. New York. Forman R.T.T., and Gordon M. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons. New York. Fritz S. H., and Mech L.D. 1981. Dynamics, Movements and Feeding Ecology of a Newly Protected Wolf population in Northwestern Minnesota. Wildl. Monographs 80: 1-79. Gilbert F.F., and D.G. Dodds. 1987. The Philosophy and Practice of Wildlife Management. Robert E. Krieger Publ. Co., Malabar, Florida. Gregg W.P. (jr.). 1984. The International Network of Biosphere Reserves: A New Dimension in Global Conservation. In: The Biosphere: Problems and Solutions. T.N. Veziroglu (ed.). Amsterdam.
OCR for page 54
Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Harestad A.S. and Bunnel F.L. 1979. Home Range and Body Weight-A Reevaluation. Ecology, 60: 389-402. Harris L.D. 1984. The Fragmented Forests. Univ.Chicago Press. Chicago and London. Hemker T.P., Linzey F.G., and Ackerman B.B. 1984. Population Characteristic and Movement Patterns of Cougars in Southern Utah . J.Wildl.Manage. 48: 1275-1284. Kabza B. 1994. Biosphere Reserves in Poland: Expectation, Realisation and Projection. J.Wildl. Res. 1: 000-000 (in print). MAB. 1993. Euro MAB IV. Conf. Rep. Zakopane. Michalowski W. 1994. The International Biosphere Reserve ''Eastern Carpathians"-The Chance or the Threat for Bieszczady Mountains. J.Wildl. Res. 1: 000-000 (in print). Noss R.F. 1987. Protecting Natural Areas in Fragmented Landscapes. Nat. Areas. J. 7: 1-13. Noss R.F., and Harris L.D. 1986. Nodes, Networks and MUMs: Preserving Diversity at All Scales. Env. Manage. 10: 299-309. Parker I.S.C., and Graham A.D. 1989. Men, Elephants and Competition. Symp. Zool. Soc. London 61: 241-252. Seitz A., and Loeschke (eds.). 1991. Species Conservation: A Population Biological Approach.Birkhauser Vlg. Basel. Sweanor P.Y., and Sandergren F. 1991. Migration Pattern of a Moose Population in Relation to Calf Recruitment. Proc. 18th IUGB Congr. Vol. 1: 631-634. UNESCO. 1984. Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves. Nature and resources 20, 412 pp. UNESCO. 1987. A Practical Guide to MAB. 40 pp. Verner J., Morrison M.L., and Ralph C.J. (eds.). 1980. Wildlife 2000Modeling Habitat Relationship of Terrestial Vertebrates. Univ. of Wisconsin Press. Von Droste B., and W.P. Gregg (jr.). 1985. Biosphere Reserves: Demonstrating the Value of Conservation in Sustaining Society. Parks 10,3: 2-5.
Representative terms from entire chapter: