IV
WILDLIFE AND TOURIST MANAGEMENT IN TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAS



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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 IV WILDLIFE AND TOURIST MANAGEMENT IN TRANSBOUNDARY PROTECTED AREAS

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 This page in the original is blank.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 BIALOWIEZA PRIMEVAL FOREST: HABITAT AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Henryk Okarma and Wojciech Jedrzejewski Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences Boguslawa Jedrzejewska Workshops for Ecology and Protection of the Natural Environment INTRODUCTION Bialowieza Primeval Forest (1451 km2) is one of the best preserved forest ecosystems in lowland temperate Europe (Falinski 1986). Due to historical changes, the forest complex has been divided between two countries, each of which follow different forest and wildlife management practices. The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of these practices over the past 50 years on forest structure, ungulate community, and large predators. A further aim is to define the main threats to this unique forest and suggest measures to improve its current status. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Bialowieza Forest was a royal hunting ground of Polish kings and was strictly protected until the end of the 18th century. After Poland lost its independence in the 19th century, the forest became the czars' game reserve. Several measures were undertaken to promote ungulates, e.g., introduction of alien species (fallow deer, Siberian roe deer), supplementary winter feeding, and persecution of large carnivores. During the two world wars of the 20th century, most game species were decimated and some eradicated. After World War II, the whole forest complex was divided between the Soviet Union (874 km2) and Poland (577 km2), which resulted in two totally different methods of forest and wildlife management. Since 1981, the Polish and Belarusian parts of the forest have been separated from each other by a double wire fence built by the Soviets. Most of the Polish part of the forest (530 km2) is a commercial forest (exploited for timber and subject to game management). Only a small part of it (47 km2) has been strictly protected since 1921 as the Bialowieza National Park (BNP),

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 where neither timber exploitation nor hunting is allowed (see map p. 111). It has been a UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve since 1977 and a World Heritage Site since 1979. The entire Belarusian part of the forest has State National Park status, under which several management measures are used. The forests are not exploited for timber, and only dead trees are removed. Ungulates are favored and large carnivores persecuted. In 1993, the entire Belarusian part of the forest was declared a biosphere reserve, with three protection zones (totally protected area, buffer zone, and ecological agriculture zone). SOURCES OF DATA Data on species structure and age of tree stands for the Bialowieza Forest were obtained from three sources. For the BNP, data came from the headquarters of Bialowieza National Park (1989 inventory), and for the exploited part from the office of the Bialowieza Forest Administration (1970 inventory). For the Belarusian part, data were provided by the Forestry Department of Belovezhskaya Pushcha State National Park (courtesy of A. Bunevich). Information on species structure of the ungulate community and density of ungulates also came from three sources. Data for Bialowieza National Park came from a research project on predator community conducted by the Mammal Research Institute (Jedrzejewski et al. 1989, Jedrzejewski et al. 1992), in which snowtracking and driving censuses were used (Jedrzejewska et al. 1994). Data from the exploited part of the forest came from game inventories conducted by game wardens of the Bialowieza Forest Administration, where snowtracking and driving censuses were also used (courtesy of L. Miekowski). For the Belarusian part, the ungulate density data were obtained from the Game Management Department of the Belovezhskaya Pushcha State National Park (courtesy of A. Bunevich). Snowtracking was used for game inventory. A detailed description of the methodology of forest and game inventory was provided by Jedrzejewska et al. (1994). FOREST STRUCTURE The major part of the tree stands in the pristine forest of BNP (72.5%) is dominated by deciduous species: oak (Quercus robur), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), alder (Alnus glutinosa), lime (Tilia cordata), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) (Fig. 1). In spite of the fact that a potential oak-lime-hornbeam forest should have formed in the exploited part of the forest, coniferous stands (54%) with spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) predominate in nearly 50% of the tree stand. These species have been used for replanting, as they are economically valuable timber species. The practice of clear-cutting has promoted birch (Betula verrucosa and B. pubescens ) and aspen (Populus tremula) (13%).

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Other deciduous tree species like Norway maple and lime have nearly disappeared as a result of management practices (Fig. 1). In the Belarusian part of the forest, the natural dominant tree stands are mixed coniferous (mainly Scots pine) with a high proportion of oak. The potential area covered by oak-lime-hornbeam forest is smaller than that in the Polish part of the forest (15%), and the actual area where such tree stands predominate is less than half the size (31%). This decrease was a result of heavy timber exploitation in the 1920s and 1930s. In both the Belarusian part and in the Bialowieza National Park there is the same proportion of tree stands (25%) in which alder, aspen, birch, and ash predominate (Fig. 1). AGE AND EXPLOITATION OF THE FOREST The age structure of the tree stands differs in the various areas. Nearly the entire forest of BNP consists of mature stands of natural origin. Stands over 100 years old comprise 67.4% of all tree stands, while young stands less than 40 years old represent only 2.4%. The average age of tree stands is 130 years (Fig. 2). The majority of the exploited forests are of secondary origin (planted). In 1970, the oldest age classes (over 100 years) constituted 30%, and the youngest (less than 40 years) included 27% of all stands. The average age of tree stands was 72 years (Jedrzejewska et al. 1994). Since data on the age of the exploited forest came from 1970, we can expect that the current average age of tree stands is even lower. However, even comparing data of 20 years' difference for these two parks (Fig. 2), it is evident that management practices have had disastrous effects on the forest and have led to the total degeneration of the natural character of the Bialowieza Forest. In the protected forest in the Belarusian part, the effect of the heavy cutting of the forest in the 1920s and 1930s is visible in the age structure (Fig. 2). A considerable number of tree stands consist of coniferous replanted tree stands (70 years old on average). Only in younger age classes has the lack of timber exploitation begun to lead to a restoration of the natural age structure of the forest. There is still a large percentage of tree stands older than 100 years, and as a result the average age of all tree stands is 97 years, more than in the Polish exploited part (Fig. 2). There is an essential difference between the exploitation of the forest in the Polish and Belarusian parts. In the latter, only selective cutting of dead trees takes place, and there have been no clear-cuts or replantations since 1951. The level of timber exploitation per year (1951-1991) was 0.81.7 m3/ha. In the Polish part, heavy exploitation and large-scale replantation occurs. The level of timber harvest, at 3.04.8 m3/ha., is on average four times higher.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 1 Species Composition (shown as percentage area covered by tree stands dominated by a given tree species) of the Strictly Protected Forest of Bialowieza National Park Poland), Semiprotected Part (Belarus) and Exploited Part (Poland) of Bialowieza forest.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 2 Age Structure (shown as percentage area covered by tree stands dominated by a given age class of trees) of the Strictly Protected Forest of Bialowieza National Park (Poland), Semiprotected Part (Belarus) and Exploited Part (Poland) of Bialowieza Forest.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 WILDLIFE DENSITY AND MANAGEMENT Bialowieza Forest harbors a nearly pristine community of ungulates: European bison (Bison bonasus), moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa ) (Jedrzejewski et al. 1992). They coexist with two species of large predators: wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), which are at the westernmost limit of their range in lowland Europe (Okarma 1990, 1993). There are major differences in ungulate density in the Polish parts of the forest. Within the Bialowieza National Park, ungulate density is very high (Fig. 3). Two species predominate: red deer (12.7 ind/km2) and wild boar (11.9 ind/km2). In the exploited forest the density of red deer is two times lower, and wild boar three times lower, while roe deer were more numerous than in the National Park (Fig. 3). These differences in ungulate density could be explained by different species and age structure of the forest (Jedrzejewska et al. 1994). It was found that the total biomass of ungulates-herbivores (European bison, moose, red deer, and roe deer) per unit area was significantly correlated with the percentage of the area covered with tree stands dominated by deciduous trees, while the biomass of ungulates-omnivores (wild boar) correlated with the percentage of the area covered with old tree stands (over 80 years) where production of seeds (primarily acorns) is highest (the average yearly crop was 16.4 tons/km2 in the Bialowieza Forest). This is why many more ungulates inhabit old-growth deciduous forests in Bialowieza National Park than coniferous-dominated younger forests in the exploited part. In the Belarusian part of the forest, where coniferous stands predominate, the density of ungulates is much lower (Fig. 3). Red deer and wild boar are dominant species there, but their density is on average six times lower than in Bialowieza National Park. In the Polish part, all ungulates except European bison are hunted under an annual harvest plan. European bison is a protected species and is excluded from regular game management; its population size is kept stable (recently at a level of about 230-250 individuals) by the National Park authorities by culling several individuals per year (primarily sick and injured ones). Recently there has been a lot of controversy concerning bison management strategy. Foresters have claimed that bison density is too high and that this species causes heavy damage to the forest. Despite the fact that most of this damage is probably caused by red deer (Pucek 1993), the forest authorities still required the number of bison to be reduced. Until 1990, the harvest of ungulates was on a moderate level in comparison to estimated population size (Table 1). Relatively more wild boar were harvested, but this species also exhibits the fastest potential reproduction rate. During the last two years, the harvest increased drastically (for wild boar up to 50% of the estimated population size). Such a management tendency clearly reflects the attitude of forest authorities toward ungulates (the case of the bison was already mentioned), which they also believe cause excessive damage to replantations.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 3 Density of Ungulates (N ind/1 km2) in the Strictly Protected Forest of Bialowieza National Park (Poland), Semiprotected Part (Belarus) and Exploited Part (Poland) of Bialowieza Forest.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TABLE 1 Harvest of Ungulates from the Polish and the Belarusian Part of the Bialowieza Forest in 1988-92. Estimated population Size N (average yearly values), harvest (average yearly values), a   1988-90 1991-92   N1 Harvest N2 Harvest     N %   N % POLAND Red deer 2000 289 14% 286 700 25% Roe deer 1900 230 12% 2590 540 21% Wild boar 1200 340 28% 1850 930 50% BELARUS3 (1988-92) Red deer 1550 156 10%       Roe deer 900 54 6%       Wild boar 1590 350 22%       1 Since officially reported numbers of ungulates were heavily underestimated (only snowtracking over a grid of 100 ha), estimated numbers of ungulates were taken as to be somewhat lower than an accurate 1991 estimates. Number of ungulates estimated on the basis of driving censuses conducted in winter 1991. 2 Number of ungulates estimated on the basis of snowtracking censuses. These censuses were conducted over a 3 grid of 25 ha, which gives an estimate of ungulate density similar to the driving census (Z. Pucek, unpubl. data). In the Belarusian part of the forest, the bison is also a protected species (about 300 individuals). Only sick individuals are culled, and there is very limited hunting by Western hunters. Red deer, roe deer, and wild boar are harvested under an annual harvest plan, and the harvest is at a similar levels as in the 1970s (Table 1). The level of harvest there was comparable to the harvest in the Polish part up to the late 1980s (Table 1). Wolf and lynx were persecuted both in the Soviet Union and in Poland in the 1950s. During this period, more than 30 wolves were reported to have been killed in the entire complex of the forest, most of them in the Belarusian part (Fig. 4). In the 1960s and 1970s, the numbers of these predators decreased considerably, and as a result only a few of them were killed (Fig. 4, 5). In the 1980s and 1990s there was a sharp increase in the numbers of wolves killed. More lynx were also killed (Fig. 5). It is impossible to give an accurate number of wolf and lynx inhabiting the forest, because methods of estimating the population size of these species are

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 unreliable (Okarma 1989, 1993; Okarma et al. 1992). However, the numbers given (especially the level of harvest) do reflect some population trends. Since the late 1980s, management of these species has become different in the two parts of Bialowieza Forest (Okarma 1993). In the Polish part, wolf and lynx have been protected since 1989, but in Belarus lynx only became a protected species in 1993 (Sachanka et al. 1993). Wolves are still heavily controlled, with more than 60% of the estimated population being taken (Fig. 4). FIGURE 4 Estimated Population Size and Yearly Harvest of Wolves in the Polish and Belarusian Part of Bialowieza Forest in 1948-93

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 have been preserved for their unusual flora, fauna, or aesthetic qualities, and it provides an experience of authentic and intimate contact with outdoor phenomena (Ingram and Durst, 1987). Ecotourism adds to this concept a concern for the well-being of the local communities and culture surrounding the wildland resource. It envisions tourism as a means for local people to diversify their economies and improve their standard of living by developing locally-owned businesses to serve a growing ecotourism market. In partnership with local economic development, ecotourism aspires to preserve wild areas and local cultures. Ziffer (1989) states, "The ecotourist practices non-consumptive use of wildlife and natural resources and contributes to the visited area through labor or financial means aimed at directly benefiting the conservation of the site and economic well-being of the local residents." Ecotourism provides potential for many of the preserves in the transboundary area. Tourism is a large and growing industry worldwide. The World Tourism Organization claims that tourism is the second largest industry (behind oil) in the world, producing between $195 billion in annual receipts (Whelan, 1991) and $2 trillion in annual receipts (Ziffer, 1989). This same organization predicts that tourism will be the world's largest industry by the year 2000. Nature tourism as a subset of the entire industry also appears to be growing. Tourism experts suggest that as much as 10% of the leisure-related travel among Americans and Europeans is nature-based tourism. Ziffer (1989) presents information that suggests ecotourists may be a rather select group. She cites one adventure travel survey indicating that half of all of the ecotourism participants made more than $39,000 per year in 1987. Further, 10 percent of those surveyed made more than $100,000 per year. Whelan (1991) cites another market survey of ecotourists to Ecuador showing that 25% of this clientel made more than $90,000 per year. Community impact assessment in the ecotourism literature tends to be generally positive. Ecotourism around nature preserves implies minimal infrastructure with minimal capital investment (Johnson, 1990). Ecotourism thus provides a potentially favorable cost/benefit ratio to areas that may have few other relative advantages. In sluggish rural economies, ecotourism is seen as having great potential. A substantial literature warns of environmental impacts of ecotourism, where increased use of an area can cause soil erosion, litter, wildlife disruption, extensive firewood cutting, and poor water quality (see Ziffer, 1989; May, 1991; Romeril, 1989; and Farrell and Runyon, 1991 for a review of this literature). In the United States, tourism development has been associated with physical disruptions in the community, such as noise, congestion, transience, and crime (Pizam, 1978; Getz, 1986); economic disruption, such as higher commodity prices and increased taxes to support expanded tourist-oriented infrastructure; family disruption as people employed in the tourist sector may have less time to spend with other family members; and a dislocated sense of community as people feel more isolated and have less control over community development (Allen et al., 1988). This literature treats these negative impacts as limiting factors to effective tourism development that must be addressed through comprehensive planning.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Ecotourism is not well defined, but it appears to be growing and represents a potential opportunity for transboundary protected areas. It would be useful for these areas to take cautious advantage of this movement. Doing so requires active planning, however. CONCLUSIONS The goal of this paper has been to note the importance of scientifically studying the tourists and recreationists who visit transboundary parks and preserves. If human use is to be understood and managed, it must be approached with the same kind of scientific attention and precision which we apply in studying other fauna. The concluding sections argued that tourists should be treated as assets and that there was considerable promise in the growing ecotourism movement as a potential for providing economic and political resources for preservation. Because of this potential and its growing importance, preserves should actively plan for and manage ecotourism. REFERENCES Farrell, B.H. and D. Runyon, 1991. "Ecology and Tourism," Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 18, pp. 26-40. Getz, D., 1986. "Models on Tourism Planning: Towards Integration of Theory and Practice," Tourism Management, vol. 7, pp. 21-32. Heberlein, Thomas A., 1988. "Improving Interdisciplinary Research: Integrating the Social and the Natural Sciences," Society and Natural Resources, vol. 1, pp. 5-16. Heberlein, Thomas A. and Peter Dunwiddie, 1978. "Systematic Observation of Visitors to a High Mountain Lake, Leisure Sciences. Ingram, C. D. and P. B. Durst, 1987. "Nature-Oriented Travel to Developing Countries," Southeastern Center for Forest Economics Research, Research Triangle Park, NC. FPEI Working Paper No. 28. May, V., 1991. "Tourism, Environment, and Development: Values, Sustainability and Stewardship," Tourism Management, vol. 12, pp. 112-118. Pizam, A., 1978. "Tourism's Impact: The Social Cost to the Destination Community as Perceived by its Residents," Journal of Travel Research, vol. 16, pp. 8-12 Romerril, M., 1989. "Tourism and the Environment—Accord or Discord?" Tourism Management, vol. 10, pp. 204-208. Shelby, Bo and Thomas A. Heberlein, 1986. Social Carrying Capacity in Recreation Settings. University of Oregon Press. Shelby, Bo, 1980. "Contrasting Recreational Experiences. Motors and Oars in the Grand Canyon," Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, vol. 35 (3), pp. 129-131. Whelan, T., 1991. Nature Tourism: Managing for the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press. Wolff, Jeremy, 1994. "Poland's Bialowieza Forest, The Last Wilderness in Europe," Travel and Leisure, April, pp. 48-53. Ziffer, K. A., 1989. Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance. Conservation International and Ernst and Young. Working paper on Ecotourism, No. 1.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TOURISM'S IMPACT ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT AROUND KASPROWY WIERCH Anna B. Kozlowska, Zofia Raczkowska, Marek Degorski Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization The area around Kasprowy Wierch is currently the part of the Polish Tatra Mountains most impacted by hiking in the summer and by skiing in the winter (Skawinski 1993). The intensification of tourist pressure began in 1936, the year in which the cable car from Kuznice to Kasprowy Wierch came into use. Prior to that time, the area had mainly been visited by skiers (Oppenheim 1936), while at present heavy ski traffic combines with equally intensive traffic in summer. Despite restrictions resulting from capacity limits, it is still possible for between 2000 and 2200 people to make the ascent by cable car each day (Bogucka and Marchlewski 1982; Skawinski 1993). In addition, several hundred tourists reach the summit each day on foot from the Myslenickie Turnie side (60-70 people), from Goryczkowa Czuba (80-90 people), and from Hala Gasiennicowa. Data from the Polish Cable Railways for average daily attendance in recent years may be combined with data from earlier estimations to suggest that some 8 million people visited Kasprowy Wierch between the years 1936 and 1989 (Skawinski 1993). It is for these reasons that there is enormous pressure for even greater development of this area for skiing. The severe anthropogenic pressure has resulted in a steady transformation of the natural environment in this area: the slopes are becoming increasingly denuded, and the erosion and degradation of soils and vegetation are under way. Furthermore, an increase in the impact of skiing is to be expected as a consequence of the frequently submitted projects for the construction of new ski lifts in the area. It is thus necessary for the area's present state to be diagnosed, especially prior to the onset of possible further development. In addition, it is also necessary to determine the direction and rate of the changes taking place and to propose protective measures. This paper represents an attempt at an empirical definition of the changes in selected characteristics of the geographical environment which are occurring in the Kasprowy Wierch area as a result of human activities. The research is being conducted by our team under a grant from the Scientific Research Committee for a three-year research program entitled "The Transformations of the Natural

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Environment in the Area around Kasprowy Wierch under the Influence of Natural Factors and Touristic Use." The research focuses on two sites which are comparable in terms of their geological structure, type of slope cover, type of slope, range of altitudes, and vegetation. The main difference between the sites lies in the degree of anthropogenic pressure, with Kociol Kasprowy and Beskid being places influenced strongly by tourism, while Swinska Dolina is a strict nature reserve. Adopted as the most constant elements in this research were relief (which conditions the development of the remaining components of the geographical environment) and vegetation (which is the resultant feature shaped by all habitat processes, including those which create soil, and which can at the same time serve as an indicator of those processes). The main aims of the study include: Diagnosing the current state of the natural environment of selected sites in Tatra Mountains National Park which represent environments that are natural or experiencing strong anthropogenic influence; Summarizing the differences between these areas and evaluating the degree to which different parts have been transformed; Monitoring changes occurring over time in areas under different kinds of human influence (hiking and ski runs), and comparing these changes with those occurring naturally over time in the strict nature reserve; and Drawing practical conclusions and preparing guidelines for actions intended to provide proper protection for the area around Kasprowy Wierch. The research project includes the following tasks: Production of a series of 1:2500-scale sketches and detailed 1:500-scale maps: a geomorphological map of selected areas, including forms and contemporary geomorphological processes; maps of the disappearance of snow cover in the areas studied; and maps of the vegetation in the areas studied. Determination of the relationship between the length of time for which snow cover persists and the plant communities present. This relationship, along with the determination of plant communities and plant indicator species, will constitute the basis for evaluating the length of time for which snow cover persists. It will also be used practically in setting limits on ski runs in the area. Investigation of the processes and directions of the changes regarded as indicative of relief and plant cover. The sites for these studies were selected on the basis of the maps drawn.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 the establishment of a series of trial plots on selected slope fragments modeled by different processes in order to measure the rate and directions of action of these processes in both of the areas studied. the establishment of a series of trial plots with selected types of vegetation in areas experiencing various kinds of anthropogenic and natural influences and having an appropriate degree of replication. the following studies will be carried out using these plots: determination of plant species composition and cover and the numerical levels of selected populations; determination of the physical and chemical properties of the substratum, including changes in soil structure, air capacity, reactions, and basic chemical characteristics; study of the thermal conditions for the occurrence of plants, especially at the start of the growing season, including the influence of snow cover; and examination of the population biology of selected species from the standpoint of their reaction to increasing anthropogenic pressure (trampling near hiking trails, the limitation of access to air due to compression of snow by vehicles preparing ski runs, etc.). Evaluation of management practices in the areas of Tatra Mountains National Park which were studied, including conclusions on possible changes and appropriate protective measures. This may take place at two stages: preliminary, on the basis of the maps drawn; and after a sufficiently-long period of study, on the basis of the synthesis of data collected over a period of some years. Studies carried out in this way will make it possible to: Draw general conclusions about the direction, rate, and course of morphogenetic and pedogenic processes and changes in the relief and vegetation of natural or anthropogenically-transformed systems; Describe the relationships between various natural factors and to express these in the form of correlative tables; and Formulate practical conclusions and proposals on the appropriate management of areas within national parks which attract such a high intensity of tourism in both summer and winter. The studies have a cognitive aspect in that they broaden knowledge of individual elements of the high mountains and the links between them, and they provide information on the natural and anthropogenic transformations which are occurring. It is assumed that these studies will be carried out by teams from

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 various fields of science and that the final result will be a summary of the relationships existing between elements and factors within biogeocenoses. These studies also have a clear practical aspect. On the basis of them it will be possible to draw conclusions on the state of preservation of, transformations in, and threats to an area of Tatra Mountains National Park that is one of the most important from the standpoint of nature conservation and touristic use. The results of the research may also find practical application in the possible creation of a spatial management plan to meet the needs of winter tourism in the Kasprowy Wierch area. REFERENCES Bogucka, A., and A. Marchlewski, 1982. Studium pojemnoxci turystycznej Tatrzanskiego Parku Narodowego. Studia Naturae, Ser. A., 22: 17-66. Oppenheim, J., 1936. Szlaki narciarskie Tatr Polskich i glowne przejscia na poludniowa strone. Polski Zwiazek Narciarski. Krakow. Skawinski, P., 1993. Oddzialywanie czlowieka na przyrodu kopuly Kasprowego Wierchu oraz Doliny Goryczkowej w Tatrach. In: (ed. W. Cichocki) Ochrona Tatr w obliczu zagrozen. Wydawn. Muzeum Tatrzanskiego, pp. 197-226. Zakopane.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF TATRA NATIONAL PARK AND THE TOWN OF ZAKOPANE Marek Peksa Tatra National Park Zakopane, a town of 30,000 inhabitants, is situated at the foot of the Tatras in southern Poland. It has the highest mountain range in the Carpathians and the only one between the Alps and the Caucasus with alpine flora, fauna, and climate. The town is 800 to 1000 m above sea level. Zakopane is an important tourist center and a starting point for 245 km of hiking trails into the Polish Tatras. It has been a mecca for mountaineers for nearly a century and is also famous for excellent skiing conditions, owing to both the natural configuration of the land and local skiing facilities. Tourist development in Zakopane began at the end of the 19th century, as part of an increasing interest in the Tatras generated by the Polish Tatra Society established in 1873. During this period, Zakopane received special government recognition as a health resort, and at this time the number of inhabitants reached 3000. The railway line to Zakopane was opened in 1900, and this made it possible for numerous tourists to arrive quickly and in comfort at the foot of Tatras. The railway line had a great effect in increasing the number of inhabitants and tourists, which numbered about 8000 a year at that time. The most intense development of Zakopane occurred in the 1930's, with the largest health spas being built in 1933. The last decade of the 19th century saw Zakopane become a center of Polish skiing. The oldest Polish ski club, the Skiing Section of the Polish Tatra Society, was set up in 1907 and is still active today. Additionally, the Polish Skiing Union was established in 1919. In a short time Zakopane took the lead among Polish skiing centers and became "the winter capital of Poland." It gained international renown during the time between the two world wars, although the first international ski competition was held there in 1910. This was followed by two FIS World Ski Championships. The first was held on February 5-10, 1929, with the participation of more than 200 sportsmen from 15 countries. The organization of the second was awarded to

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Zakopane unanimously by the FIS Congress in Helsinki in February 1938. The event attracted 500 contestants and some 200 press correspondents, and the competitions were broadcast by seven European radio stations. At that time, Zakopane was one of the best-equipped and most popular skiing centers in Europe. The cable car to the summit of Kasprowy Wierch was built in 1936, and the funicular railway on Gubalowka and the sledge lift on Kociol Gasienicowy in 1938. The Wielka Krokiew ski jump, one of the most beautiful jumping hills in the world, was first constructed in 1925 and later modernized many times. In 1956, the Academic World Ski Championship was held at the foot of Tatras, and the third FIS World Championships in Zakopane were organized in 1962. A record 110,000 spectators watched the ski jumping competition on Wielka Krokiew. In 1969, Zakopane hosted the Biathlon World Championship, and World and European Cups in alpine and cross-country skiing and ski jumping were held here many times. Most recently, the Winter Universiade was held here in 1993. A very attractive aspect of the Zakopane region is its folklore, which is rich and very well preserved. It has a great influence on the unique and picturesque everyday life here, which has a special charm of its own. Highlanders in traditional costume are to be seen every day, folk art still flourishes, and the unique sound of highland music is to be heard everywhere. The typical culture of the Highlanders is particularly visible outside the town, where many live in beautiful hand-crafted wooden houses. There are many folk ensembles in which Highlanders dance, sing, and play regional music. Zakopane also has numerous folk artists who paint glass, carve wood, and work iron. The studios and workshops of these artists are open to the public. There are also many professional artists in Zakopane, some of which are world famous. Each year the town hosts numerous international shows, including (most importantly) the International Festival of Mountain Folklore and the Festival of the Music of Karol Szymanowski. Exhibitions and sporting events of various types are held here year round, as are meetings and gatherings of different kinds. Very interesting for all visitors is Koscieliska Street and adjoining sidestreets, which form the oldest center of the town. For the past hundred years the old Highland houses have been admired as open-air museums displaying the material culture of the Podhale region. One attraction is Villa Koliba, the first Zakopane-style building designed by Stanislaw Witkiewicz. Zakopane's old town also has a wooden church from 1847. The road through the stone gate was designed by Stanislaw Witkiewicz and leads to the historic Old Cemetery, which is the resting place of many cultural, scientific, and mountaineer personalities. The Tytus Chalubinski Tatra Museum, Poland's first regional museum, was founded in 1888 and is a good starting place for sightseeing in the region. The exhibits consist of ethnographic collections from the Podhale, Spisz, and Orawa regions, as well as specimens of the material culture of the Tatra foothills district and interesting natural and geological samples. At present, the area of Zakopane covers about 350 km2 and has nearly 50,000 inhabitants. The magnificent environment, climate, monuments, and many

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 1 The Town of Zakopane (Shadowed) and Tatra National Park (—Park Border, - • - State Border)

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 attractive events draw millions of tourists annually to Zakopane. The number of inhabitants increases to 100,000 persons a day. Tourists have come here since 1850, but the present tourists differ from those of previous times in that they do not want to live in ordinary cottages and eat simple meals. For this reason, we must think about building a better infrastructure, especially since the number of tourists has increased more than the suitable infrastructure in the past few years, and numerous threats are thus being posed to both the town's natural environment and the Tatra Mountains. Mass tourism was very popular in socialist times, with many establishments, institutions, and factories organizing trips for their workers. It was during this period that the greatest environmental damage occurred in the town. Plans to manage the area focused on the enlargement of hotels and flats and the enhancement of consumer services. The town authorities gave a lot of agricultural and forest land for hotels and tourist centers to be built. Zakopane has about 300 large coke furnaces which consume nearly 300,000 tons of coke and coal each year. Most houses, flats, and households are also heated by coke and coal. Each day, Zakopane produces about 300 m3 of trash, and only 40% of its buildings are connected to sewers. Poland's political and economic changes of the 1980's led to restrictions on tourist traffic. For example, it was calculated that the number of tourists declined from a peak of 3.5 million a year in the late 1970's to around 2.5 million a year. In the meantime, the requirements of tourists changed, and the town authorities began to look at the issue in a different way than in past years. A new ''wastewater" system was opened some years ago, and the local authorities put in a gas pipeline to Zakopane. People are now paying more attention to plans for the management of the area. They want to protect the natural environment and the resources of Tatra National Park. In many cases, the policies of Tatra National Park have contributed to such a position among the local authorities. The research contributed by scientists from the scientific research center in Tatra National Park illustrates the threat to the areas surrounding Zakopane. The policy of Tatra National Park has not suited many businessmen. Environmental protection laws enacted in 1991 strictly defined the role to be played by the national parks. It has been assumed that there will be a protective zone which will secure the Tatra Mountains from negative influences originating outside of the area. At this time, the total size of this zone is under discussion. Tatra National Park creates natural recreational and sporting areas for inhabitants and tourists. Zakopane also draws numerous benefits from the area. Every day, the town takes in many thousands of cubic meters of water and employs many thousands of people. The Tatra forests are the lungs of Zakopane, and they also supply timber for the local people. We believe that everything that happens in Zakopane and everything that draws tourism should be arranged in the course of cooperation between the authorities of Zakopane and of Tatra National Park. Such cooperation is therefore imperative, and both authorities should aspire to create a

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 policy that will be satisfactory in protecting the Tatra environment as well as in meeting the needs of inhabitants and tourists alike.