V
MONITORING AND MEASURING THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE IN BORDER AREAS



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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 V MONITORING AND MEASURING THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE IN BORDER AREAS

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 This page in the original is blank.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 PLANT DIVERSITY IN TATRA NATIONAL PARK (SLOVAKIA) Rudolf Soltes, Anna Soltesova, Zuzana Kyselova Research Station of Tatra National Park A database including hundreds of thousands of records has provided objective information on a habitat's environmental factors to help pinpoint priorities for plant conservation. Although the results are only approximate, they have integrated long-term environmental conditions and can give information presentable on a spatial projection. Unlike other time-consuming and technically-advanced methods, this method offers a prompt ecological foundation which can be expressed quantitatively. We have found that the creation of a database information system offers the most convenient method for storing data on biodiversity mapping in Tatra National Park. However, the database is only as good as the data that is fed into it. The structure of the file is as follows: species, subspecies, chassis, inventory number of the specimen, date, orographic unit, location, substratum, altitude, community, density, cover of respective layer, notes (memo field), collector, determinator, and square. We have found that the methods recommended by Jurko (1990) are most convenient for our purpose. We have decided to use more index types because each is specific and renders information of a different type. The following selected indices will be calculated by sub-programs: The scale diversity index Dsc (equation 1) xi - values for mean number of species yi - values for mean cover of respective layer ziy - mean cover of sublayer The advantage of this index is the considerable stability of the values entered and the corresponding relative constancy of the communities as well.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 McNaughton's dominance index Cn (equation 2) Nd - values for cover of the dominants N - total cover This index expresses the sum of values of dominants compared to total cover, where dominants are considered to be those species with more than 40% dominance. The function of dominants is very important, and so index Cn is especially valuable in succession studies. Hill's diversity index (equation 3) xi - the value of species significance This index is transparent and gives a wide spectrum of values along the scale of 1 - 100. However, even highly-diversified communities do not have values higher than 50. Shannon's index (equation 4) S - number of species N - the sum of significances Shannon's index is the function of relative cover and species significance and is logarithmically related to the number of species (xi). So, index H' is especially sensitive to the total number of species and to their coefficients of significance.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Pielouov's equitability index (equation 5) H' - Shannon's index s - number of species The real diversity is compared to the maximum possible, i.e., the ideal distribution of species. This index is useful in some specific investigations. The values of these indices will be Version 2 projected on a network consisting of 90×150 m oblongs using the ARCVIEW program. The scales will be settled later and distinguished by color or pattern. To date, we have stored nearly 12,000 records, and the number is increasing constantly. ENDANGERED SPECIES OR HABITATS OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE Peatland Habitats Peatland habitats were lost in the past as a result of land reclamation, the intensification of agricultural practices, the construction of communications infrastructures, river straightening, turf cutting, etc. These habitats are suitable for many endangered and precious species and communities of vascular plants and mosses. Peatland habitats include acid bog peats, fen peats enriched by base compounds, and intermediate peats. The number and extent of peatland habitats have been greatly reduced, and protection of the remainder is thus a matter of concern. The majority already enjoy protection in protected areas covering 227 hectares. But they are still endangered by air pollution, and the extent of the harmful influence of the atmospheric deposition of acidifying agents is still unclear. Another human influence, especially in forest ecosystems, is groundwater extraction for drinking water. The critically-endangered species Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum is restricted to this ecotope. Despite intensive searches, this species has been confirmed at only 21 locations. The species occurs abundantly at only one location, with the others being endangered by the natural seeding of trees. Most endangered of all is Carex chordorrhiza, which had declined in its location to one very depauperate population of some 13 sterile plants in 1993. Most likely this decline is caused by natural succession as the site is becoming dry. Andromeda polifolia appears to be restricted in Tatra National Park to two locations. The best site, close to the major tourist resort of Strbske Pleso, is endangered by human activities, including garbage accumulation and trampling.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Ledum palustre has been confirmed at four sites, of which only one has a large enough population to survive. The others are only remnants of the previous, more extensive distribution, and two populations consist of less than five plants each. Scheuchzeria palustris was noted in three locations, but is more abundant in only one. In the 1980's, a new species for the Tatra Mountains, Calla palustris , was found. The population is large enough to survive, and the main danger is thus the competition of other populations. Worthy of mention are other critically-endangered vascular plants like Carex limosa, Carex lasiocarpa, Baeothryon alpinum, and Baeothryon caespitosum. Rare and endangered mosses include Paludella squarrosa, Meesia triquetra, Hypnum pratense, and Sphagnum platyphyllum. The peatland habitats represent a valuable natural heritage of Tatra National Park, and their adequate protection is an essential part of the Park's function. Freshwater Habitats The main features of this ecosystem are the generally low diversity and the marked vulnerability to acid rain and anthropogenic contamination. Sparganium angustifolium is found in still water at only one site, and Ranunculus reptans is found in its splash zone. Drepanocladus trichophyllus is a submerged moss found at three locations. Running water is the habitat of the critically-endangered species Juncus castaneus. Only three small, isolated sites are known for this species, which needs special attention to prevent its decline and disappearance from the Tatra Mountains. Some rare moss species restricted to this habitat include Racomitrium aciculare, Racomitrium aquaticum, and Fontinalis antipyretica. Epiphytic Lichens and Mosses Epiphytic moss and lichen species are rarely afforded any special conservation efforts because of the lack of experts. The bark of coniferous and deciduous trees is a convenient substratum for some mosses and lichens which are declining on the European scale and some species which must presently be considered extinct (the lichen Usnea longissima and the mosses Ulota rehmanii and Antitrichia curtipendula ). Some important epiphytes are restricted to deep, constantly-humid, and shaded forest stands which are protected from pollution inputs and strong winds. Such phorophytes were found on the broadleaved trees Populus tremula, Salix caprea, Alnus incana, and Betula carpatica . Important phorophytes also occur on some trees managed on parkland or trees in avenues, for example, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata, Populus tremula, Populus alba, Ulmus glabra, Betula pendula, Sorbus aucuparia, and Acer pseudoplatanus. The frequency histogram of IUCN categories (Fig. 1) shows the apparently greater sensitivity of cryptogamic plants to environmental conditions (1.66% of moss species extinct and 1.86% of lichens, but only 0.6% of higher plant species).

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 1 Frequency Histogram of IUCN Categories in Accordance with the Total Number of Plant Species

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 The frequency histogram of IUCN categories (Fig. 1) shows the apparently greater sensitivity of cryptogamic plants to environmental conditions (1.66% of moss species extinct and 1.86% of lichens, but only 0.6% of higher plant species). It can be assumed that changes in the vegetation of Tatra National Park will continue as long as habitat quality continues to be affected. The nomenclature of mosses follows Corley et al. (1981), while that of vascular plants is after Dostal and Cervenka (1992), and that of lichens mainly after Wirth (1987) and occasionally Santensson (1984). REFERENCES Corley, M.F.C., A.C. Crundwell, R. Dull, M.O. Hill and A.J.E. Smith, 1981. "Mosses of Europe and the Azores; an Annotated List of Species, ith Synonyms from the Recent Literature," J. Bryol., vol. 11, pp. 609-689. Dostal, J. and M. Cervenka, 1992. Velky kluc na urcovanie vyssich rastlin. Bratislava. Jurko, A., 1990. Ekologicke a socioekonomicke hodnotenie vegetacie. Bratislava. Santensson, R., 1984. The Lichens of Sweden and Norway. Stockholm and Uppsala. Wirth, V., 1987. Die Flechten Baden-Wurtembergs. Stuttgart.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN THE UKRAINIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS AND THE UKRAINIAN PART OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE Lydia Tasenkevich State Museum of Natural History Ukrainian Academy of Sciences The significance of the Carpathians as a European center of floristic diversity has not yet been recognized. Only recently (particularly in the East and South) have studies begun to focus on this mountain system's influence as a floristic barrier on the one hand and a linking bridge on the other. The Ukrainian part of the Eastern Carpathians is a typical medium-sized mountain system with mainly dome-shaped summits which are frequently united into long ranges or massifs and dissected by the deep river valleys. Only in the southeastern part of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians do altitudes increase, reaching 2061 m a.s.l. at Hoverla, the highest peak in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Such smoothness of relief is caused by the easily-destroyed flysch deposits that are the prevailing geological bedrocks in the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians. Only in the southeastern part are some massifs, like the Chornohora and Marmarosh Mountains, built of the weathering-resistant sandstones and crystalline and metamorphic rocks whose relief is characterized by more severe forms. Here, peaks frequently have the form of inaccessible rocks, and the bases of the rock faces develop extensive fields of scree. Traces of former Pleistocene glacier activity (glacial cirques, valley-steps, moraines) are also particularly distinct. The diversified geology and relief influences the richness and diversity of the vegetation cover. A number of phytogeographical units can be distinguished within the territory of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians. Putting aside a detailed consideration of the correctness or correspondence of the different systems of floristic and geobotanical divisions (Domin 1928, 1930; Soo 1933; Pawlowski 1948; Fodor 1960; Chopyk 1976, 1977), we accept here the system used most frequently in Ukrainian botanical literature: the one proposed by V. Chopyk (1977) and subsequently modified slightly by Tasenkevich (1986).

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ON THE FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF THE UKRAINIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS The flora of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians has been studied for nearly 200 years by generations of Austrian, Polish, Ukrainian, Slovak, Czech, Hungarian, and Romanian botanists. The Flora of the Ukrainian SSR (1935 - 1965) and the vascular plant species of the Manual of the Ukrainian Carpathians (1977) may be considered unique reviews of these investigations. According to the data within them, 2012 species of vascular plants occur in the territory of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Manual 1977). They belong to 135 families and more than 600 genera. The richest families include Compositae, Rosaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Ranunculaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also well represented are genera whose centers of diversity are the European mountains. Examples here are Astragalus, Gentiana, Potentilla, Primula, Ranunculus, and Saxifraga. More than 150 vascular plant species are included in the second edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine (in press). The latest data indicate that 331 species of vascular plants are rare, vulnerable, or endangered in the flora of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians (Tasenkevich, manuscript). It must be noted that the aforementioned Manual includes foothills as well as genuine mountain territory. It therefore lists more species than actually occur. Similarly, adequate knowledge of the native floral diversity is still lacking, with the Manual including all groups of synanthropic plants, including exotic ones. By the time of the publication of the last volume of the Flora of Ukraine, the concept of the species as a biological system consisting of population combinations had gained a foothold in the biological world (the change from the monotypical species standard to the polytypical one had been accomplished). However, even after the completion of Flora Europaea (1968 - 1980), attempts are still being made to qualitatively and quantitatively re-estimate the flora of the Eastern Carpathians of Ukraine by the equal species standard. In contrast, the floras of our neighbors are either well advanced (Flora Slovenska, v. 1 - 4, 1966 - 1992; Flora Polski, v. 4, 5, 1985, 1987) or even completed (Beldie, 1972; Dostal, 1989). The results of one of the first attempts at a modern approach to the floral diversity of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians were presented in a single, recently-published article on the endemism of vascular plants (Stoyko, Tasenkevich, 1993). On the basis of critical taxonomic and chorological study, some 95 species and subspecies were considered to be endemic to the Ukrainian Carpathians. Various authors take up diverse positions regarding the number, taxonomy, chorology, and other aspects of endemic taxa. Thus, different results have been obtained. V. Chopyk (1976) considered only 76 species to be endemic to the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians, while B. Pawlowski (1970) gave only 102 endemic taxa for the entire Carpathian flora.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Lists of Carpathian ''endemics" have often included what are actually subendemic taxa with wider geographical ranges. This group comprises taxa with Carpathian-Balkan distributions (for example, Rhododendron myrtifolium, Schott et Kotschy; Verbascum glabratum, Friv.; Veronica baumgartenii, Roem. et Schult.; Viola ideclinata, Waldst. et Kit.) as well as East Alpine-Carpathian-Balkan species like Cardamine opizii , Presl.; C. glanduligera, O. Schwarz; and Cirsium waldsteinii, Rouy. All the above-mentioned facts give a striking illustration of the necessity for a critical treatment of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathian flora on the basis of unified taxonomic and chorological foundations. A primary task in such an effort is the study of the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians as part of the Eastern Carpathian flora linking the West and South Carpathians. The task should thus be of interest to botanists in both Ukraine and Central Europe. Such research is expected to provide a great deal of different botanical data, and it is for the recording, storage, processing, and analysis of this information that the "Carpathians Flora" informational system was created. This system is built on a database that contains species characteristics as follows: species name; family; genus; subspecies; occurrence in the West, East, and South Carpathians; biomorphology; ecological demands; caryotaxonomy; ecotopes; phytogeographical characteristics; economic importance; and protection status. The foundation of the database is a species composition block, so the taxonomy and nomenclature of species from the volumes of Flora Europaea was selected as the uniting and unifying base. THE STATE OF EXPLORATION OF THE FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF THE UKRAINIAN PART OF THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS BIOSPHERE RESERVE A considerable proportion of the vascular plant species grow in protected areas of several types in the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians. Most of these protected areas have been described in general outline only (Stoyko et al. 1980). But even the main ones (Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Carpathian National Park, and Synevir National Park) which are described in special monographs (Stoyko et al. 1982, 1993) will not be explored completely due to their recent establishment or expansion. As a result, there are no clear data on the composition and status of protected plant species in the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians. The most representative protected area in the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians is Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. The main part of it was protected in 1968 as Carpathian Reserve (zapovidnyk), but it was only after numerous organizational difficulties that 32,000 ha of it was incorporated into the international network of Biosphere Reserves in 1992. The principal part of the reserve, consisting of six separate areas, is representative of all the vegetational belts of the Ukrainian Eastern Carpathians,

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 THE BELOW-GROUND BIOMASS OF MATURE FORESTS AND IMMISSION LOADING Milan Kodrik Institute of Forest Ecology Slovak Academy of Sciences INTRODUCTION Roots provide a crucial link in the soil-plant-continuum. Their health depends on both the soil environment and the functioning of the tree canopy. Changes in either one of these compartments gives rise to a root response (Persson 1980), and the state of health of roots in turn determines multiple above-ground functions of plants, such as water and nutrient exchange (Chapin 1980), growth (Ingestad 1982), and hormonal root/shoot interactions (Schulze 1986). There is a strong interrelationship between the tree canopy and the root system, with the canopy supplying carbohydrates for root growth (Marshall and Waring 1985) and the roots supplying water and nutrients to the canopy. However, root growth, mineral concentrations (Bublinec 1992), and the formation of root tips are determined by such chemical and physical properties of the soil as the nitrogen supply (Meyer 1985) and degree of soil acidification. In accordance with this knowledge, the aim of the work described here is to gain data on the division and total quantity of below-ground biomass in Norway spruce stands under varying pollution regimes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four monitoring plots (MP1-MP4) were established in the area of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids. In all cases the stands involved were Norway spruce monocultures. The soil substrate consisted of an iron podzol, and all plots had northwest exposure with an inclination of 10-15 {SYMBOL 176 \f "Symbol"}. More details can be found below in Table 1 (and see also Kodrík 1992).

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TABLE 1 Stand Characteristics of the Four Monitoring Plots in the Moravian-Silesian Beskids (MP1-4) Plot Altitude [m] Age [years] Height [m] Diameter [cm] MP1 900 80 23 26 MP2 920 75 22 28 MP3 910 75 22 28 MP4 830 70 22 25 Pollution regimes were taken into consideration when the plots were chosen. The first three plots were characterized by pollution loadings of different intensities (expressed by 50-60 percent loss of needles), while the fourth was a control plot with minimum inputs of pollution. Exact values for loads in the investigated monitoring plots are given below in Table 2 (Kontrišová 1990). All data on below-ground biomass were gained through destructive sampling of trees. To get a complete picture of the position of trees as individuals, after repeated stock-takings each tree was sorted by Kraft's classification scale (Vyskot et al. 1971). This scale takes the relative altitudinal position of the tree and the formation of the crown into account. Kraft (Vyskot et al. 1971) distinguishes the following classes: Dominant, codominant, partially codominant, undertopping, and fully-shaded trees. The selection resulted from calculated mensurational tree variables, separately for each Kraft class (Oszlányi 1975). We processed one sample tree from of the first three classes on each research plot. The tree root system was elevated by means of the archeological method (Kodrík 1992), with the whole root system being gradually uncovered using shovels, hoes and brushes. A tractor with a winch and a powersaw were also used. The fresh weight was determined in the field on scales accurate to 0.05 kg RESULTS The results are shown in Table 3. It is evident from the data that the most substantial share of below-ground biomass is on MP4 - at 72.6 t ha-1 in terms of dry weight. There are no substantial differences in the structure of below-ground biomass except in the first diameter category. The most substantial share of the TABLE 2 Pollution Inputs in the Eadca Area - Average Values in 1980-1990 DUST TRACE ELEMENTS IN DUST [mg kg-1 year-1] [g m-2 month-1] Cd Cu Cr Mn Ni Pb 8.67 9.6 72.1 34.9 440.4 94.5 462.6

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 TABLE 3 Root Biomass of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies (1.) Karst.) in Different Diameter Classes in Terms of Dry Weight [kg ha-1] and Percentage Share in Every Diameter Class   Root size classes [cm] Plot Total   <0.5 0.6-2.0 2.1-5.0 5.1-7.0 .1-10.0 >10.0 Stump   MP1 740 1% 2810 5% 5960 11% 3960 7% 3880 7% 19420 36% 18370 33% 55140 100% MP2 880 1.5% 4500 7% 7570 12% 3630 5.5% 3600 6% 19850 31% 23500 37% 63530 100% MP3 1390 2.5% 2340 4% 4480 8% 2990 5% 2360 4.5% 18960 35% 22010 41% 54530 100% MP4 2130 3% 3500 5% 6840 10% 3910 5% 4470 6% 32160 44% 19600 27% 72610 100% biomass in this diameter category is on MP4, where it represents 3 percent of total below-ground biomass. It is obvious from the biomass distribution (Table 3) that almost all diameter categories on the control plot (MP4) obtained higher estimates. Also, while the total biomass is 72.6 t DW ha-1 on MP4, the lowest total biomass on the polluted plots (on MP3) was as low as 54.5 t, or only 75 percent of the total below-ground biomass recorded from the control plot. The differences in biomass noted on the other polluted plots were not so great. DISCUSSIONS Nihlgãrd (1972) estimated the below-ground biomass in a 55-year-old Norway spruce stand to be 59 t DW ha-1. On the other hand, Parshevnikov (1975) estimated root biomass in a 110-year-old Norway spruce stand at 66 t DW ha-1. It may be concluded with regard to MP1-MP4 that the stand density is higher and the growth conditions different. Our data are further confirmed by results from Oszlányi (1986), who estimated the root biomass in terms of below-ground fresh weight at 115 t ha-1 in a 60 year-old Norway spruce stand.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 REFERENCES Bublinec, E., 1992. The Content of Biogenic Elements in Forest Tree Species. Lesn.Èas.-Forestry Journal 38, 365-375. Ingestad, T., 1982:. Relative Addition Rate and External Concentration: Driving Variables Used in Plant Nutrition Research. Plant Cell. Environ. 5, 443-453. Kodrik, M., 1992. Below-ground Biomass Distribution of Norway Spruce. In: Forest-Wood-Ecology, Internat. Sci. Conf. pp 151-157. Technical University Press, Zvolen, Slovakia. Kontriková, O., 1990. Air Quality on the Monitoring Plots. Final Report Institute of Forest Ecology SAS, Slovakia. 27 p. (in Slovak) Slovakia. Marshall, J.O., Waring, R.H., 1985. Predicting Fine Root Production and Turnover by Monitoring Root Starch and Soil Temperature. Plant Soil 91, 51-60. Nihlgãrd, B., 1972. Plant Biomass, Primary Production and Distribut. of Chemical Elements in a Beech and Planted Spruce Forest in South Sweden. Oikos, 23, 69-81. Oszlányi, J., 1979: Biomass Energetic Value of Different Biosociological Position Trees. Lesnícky èasopis 23, 177-188. (in Slovak) Oszlányi, J., 1986: Analysis into Biomass Production and into its Energy Equivalent of the Tree Layer in Five Forest Ecosystems. Biologické práce 32, 1, Veda Bratislava, 1-157. (in Slovak) Parshevnikov, A.L., 1975: Productivity and Turnover of Chemical Elements in Northern Phytocoenoses. Nauka, Leningrad, USSR, 128 p. (in Russian). Persson, H., 1980: Fine Root Dynamics in a Scots Pine Stands with and without Near-Optimum Nutrient and Water Regimes. Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 68, 101-110. Schulze, E.D., 1986: Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Exchange in Response to Drought in the Atmosphere and in the Soil. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 247-274. Vyskot, M. et al., 1971: Bases of Growth and Production of Forest. State Agricultural Publishing house Praha, Czechoslovakia. 440 p.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA IN SLOVAKIA'S EASTERN CARPATHIANS AND PROBLEMS OF PRESERVATION Igor Hudec and Dusan Barabas Institute of Zoology and Ecosozology Slovak Academy of Sciences Juraj Platko Management in Protected Area of Eastern Carpathians INTRODUCTION Knowledge about amphipods in Slovakia's Eastern Carpathians is not satisfactory, but the amphipods are nearly the same in all Slovakia (STRASKRABA, 1953, 1959, 1962). Three amphipod species of the genus Gammarus are noted commonly from Slovakia (G. balcanicus tatrensis, G. fossarum and G. roeselli). Only one record of G. kishineffensis was reported by Straskraba (1962) from Zbojsky Brook. The following surface amphipods have been found to date in southern parts of Slovakia: Sinurella ambulans MULLER, Niphargus valachicus DOBR.& MAN. Other species are restricted to the Danube (Brtek, Rothschein, 1964). The crayfish has not been researched in the Slovakian Eastern Carpathians yet and only two records of A. astacus have been reported in Zbojsky Brook (J. Brtek's personal information). We did not find Asellus aquaticus L. (Isopoda) in the protected area itself but the species was recorded in the Laborec River near Krzl'ov Brod (below Medzilaborce). CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WATERSHED The relatively limited permeability of the East Carpathian flysch ensures a shallow circulation of ground water. The accumulation ability of watersheds is very low in spite of the high percentage forestation of the region (Kupco, 1988). The hydrological regime has features characteristic of flysh (Figure 1, upper part):

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 1 Mean Monthly Flows on Some Eastern Carpathian Brooks (upper part) and Comparable Large Brooks on Other Parts in East Slovakia

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Maximal mean monthly flows are in March and April, because of snow melt and spring rains; There is later a rapid decrease (May); and The next rise (June - July) in mean monthly flows is the result of summer rains. The hydrological regime in crystalline complexes and neovulcanits of Slovakia (Figure 1, low part) decrease more slowly in its mean monthly flows after spring maxima, so that the summer rains do not have so strong an influence on mean monthly flows as flysch in the East Carparthians. Some characteristics from comparable large watersheds are in Table 1. Relatively high and fast drainage of rain is also typical for the East Carpathian flysh. Fifty percent runoff is characteristic of the mean annual flow (Table 1) and up to 80 percent runoff is commonly measured during floods. Floods in such an extreme water regime are designated hydrologically as flood waves. Both maximal and minimal flows are considered to be the extremes for the whole of the East Carpathian flysh on East Slovakian territory. Water management is very important for many streams because of strong erosion. MATERIAL AND METHODS We researched the Crustacean fauna of surface waters during 1993, but older records were also included. Consideration here is restricted to flowing water habitats. We used Carausu et al (1955) and Jadzewski (1975) to determine identity of Amphipoda and Hennig (1982) for crayfish. TABLE 1 Hydrological Parameters of Comparable Watersheds on Different Background       Mean Annual Value   Brooks (background) Localization of profile Watershed area (km2) Precipitation (mm) Runoff (mm) Specific runoff (l.s-1.km-2) Zbojsky potok (flysh) Nova Sedlica 34.5 1026 768 24.33 Kamenica (neovulcanits) Kamenienka 39.2 1003 612 19.39 Ulicka (flysh) Ulic 96.7 967 571 18.09 Bodva (crystallinic) Nizny Medzev 90.2 890 329 10.43 Ondava (flysh) Vysny Orlik 108.6 825 343 10.87 Smolnik (crystallinic) mouth 99.2 937 350 11.09 Laborec (flysh) Krasny Brod 158.3 953 427 13.52

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 RESULTS Amphipoda Gammarus kishineffensis SHELLENBERGER is an East Carpathian element of the Slovak fauna for it has only been found in the main flow of the Stuzica, the Zbojky, the Ulicka (near Runina), and the Ublianka (up to Klenovz). The species was not recorded from small streams in the watershed, and it was also absent from Ulicka below the town of Ulic as a consequence of urban pollution. We suggest simultaneously that as an East-Carpathian element of the Slovakian fauna, G. kishineffensis probably has its westernmost distribution in this area. Gammarus fossau KOCH was recorded in the Cirocha River both before and during the construction of the Starina Reservoir. However the present study did not locate it there (only G. balcanicus tatrensis was found). G. fossarus is a common species in the rest of Slovak territory, occurring in the main flows of brooks, streams, and springs. The species was found by the authors below Starina Reservoir and in the lower part of the Laborec River. Gammarus balcanicus tatensis KARAMAN is the only species in the upper and midparts of the Udava River and in all of the area above Starina Reservoir, including all researched springs. It also inhabits only the upper parts of Ulicka and Zbojsky Brooks, including the springs. Decapoda Only Astacus astacus L. was recorded from this region, with small populations limited to only some of the brooks and streams of the Udava, Cirocha, Ulicka watersheds. More abundant populations were only noted in and around secondary habitats (stream-ponds) in the western part of East Carpathian region. A surprisingly strong crayfish population was found in the Starina Reservoir when it is recalled that the reservoir was filled only six years ago. Some individuals were infected with epiparasitic Annelida (Clitellata, Branchiobdellida), mostly Brachiobdella pentadonta WHITMAN, 1882, and less so B. parasitica HENLE, 1835. CONSERVATION ISSUES Only Astacus astacus L. needs special efforts in conservation, as according to the ''Red book" (Brtek, 1993) it is a vulnerable member of the Slovak fauna. It is recommended that the preservation of this species be linked with fish management, since both groups have very similar problems where the preservation of habitat is concerned. The greatest problem in the conservation of crayfish is the water regime on the East Carpathian flysh (Figure 2 and Table 1). Heavy erosion destroys natural

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 FIGURE 2 Distribution of Crayfish Astacus astacus L. in Slovakian Eastern Carpathians

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 riverine habitats, especially during floods, and this is probably the main reason for the low populations of crayfish, especially in the eastern part of area. Some time ago a cascade of weirs was constructed on the upper part of the Zbojsky Brook. It would seems that these constructions were inadequate for the hydrological regime because they are almost destroyed now. The authors recommend than an adequate cascade of weirs be constructed in the upper part of the Zbojsky and Ulicka Brooks. On the basis of the research presented here, the small brook-ponds would also seem to be one possible and ideal way by which to strengthen crayfish populations. To date, industrial and urban pollution has not been one of the greater problems in the area. Pollution affects only short sections of rivers (e.g., those below the towns of Medzilaborce, Ubl'a and Ulic). It would seem that a greater problem for riverine habitats will result from the contemporary deforestration of large parts of the area (e.g., the Runina district). Acknowledgment We thank the Management of the Protected Area of the Eastern Carpathians (Humenne) for partial sponsoring of the research in 1993. REFERENCES Brtek J., 1992. Crustaceans (Crustacea), p.54-59. In: L. Skapec (Ed.). Red Book of Endangered and Rare Species of Plants and Animals in CSFR, 3 Invertebrata. PrZroda, Bratislava (in Slovak) Brtek, J. & Rothschein, 1964. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hydrofauna und des Reinheitzustandes des tschechoslowakishen Abschnittes der Donau. Biol. Przce, Bratislava 10, 5: 62 pp. Carausu S., E. Dobreanu, and C. Monolache 1955. Amphipoda forme salmastre si de apa dulce. Fauna Rep. pop. Romine, Crustacea 4.4: 409 pp. Hennig A., 1982: Das System der europaischen Fluákrebse (Decapoda, Astacidae): Vorschlag und Begrundung . Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 79: 187-210 Jadzewski K., 1975. Morfologia, taksonomia i wystepowanie w Polsce kieldzy z rodzajow Gammar dem Sammlungen von Prof. Hrab I. V st. eskoslov. spol. zool. 26, 2: 117-145 Kupco M., 1988. Hydrology: 41-47 p. In: I. Voloscuk (Ed.): The East Carpathian protected area. Priroda, Bratislava. Straskraba, M., 1953. Preliminary report on distribution of the genus Gammarus in Czechoslovakia. Vest. Ceskoslov. spol. zool. 17, 3: 212-227 (in Czech) Straskraba M., 1959, Contribution to the knowledge of the amphipod fauna of Slovakia. Biologia. Bratislava 14, 3: 161-172 (in Czech) Straskraba M., 1962, Amphipoden der Tschechoslowakei nach dem Sammlungen von Prof. Hrabe I. Vest. Ceskoslov. spol. Zool. 26, 2: 117-145

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