VI
APPENDICES



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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 VI APPENDICES

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 This page in the original is blank.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 APPENDIX A BASIC PRINCIPLES Transboundary areas must be understood as one complex unit. Natural and cultural values of the territory should be evaluated within the whole transboundary unit and management plans should be applied consistently within the entire unit, not separately for each particular part of the unit. Transboundary protection of biodiversity needs to be promoted on each of its levels (ecosystems, species and genetic) through the development of international conservation strategies. These strategies would set general principles of the protection of transboundary units, define priorities for actions, and set unified methodologies for research, monitoring, and data processing. These strategies also should serve as a basis from which the national management plans for national portions of transboundary units (transboundary protected area) shall be derived. Political support is necessary for transboundary areas on both national and international levels. International level: Statements supporting transboundary cooperation within the transboundary protected areas should be incorporated into international agreements between concerned countries. National level: Funds need to be raised for research, monitoring, conservation, education, and data processing. Legislation and its implementation need to be improved to better preserve the natural resources in existing protected areas.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 SUGGESTED RESEARCH AGENDA TO SUPPORT BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY This list was developed during the workshop and reflects the general consensus of the individual participants; these suggestions do not necessarily reflect the views of any organizing or sponsoring institution. Although the enumerations reflect the topics as presented, the research is not necessarily meant to be exclusively applicable to the site where the topic happened to arise. Eastern Carpathian Biosphere Reserve In the near future, decisions on common methodologies, scales, sample design, and intensity should be agreed to by the relevant organizations at each Protected area. Since the work involves common ecosystems, syntheses and comparisons can only be made if the protocols and units are mutually useful and communicated. At each Protected Area, a statement of principles and memorandum of understanding should be drafted and agreed to by each national party. The documents should encourage and reach a wider research population, i.e., a diversity of disciplines and scientists from a much wider variety of organizations. Research on diversity cannot be effective if exclusive or the province of a controlling entity. Much more emphasis on system level, process oriented research (integrated and interdisciplinary) is needed. While further enumeration (e.g., systematics) is useful, there should be a general shift to systems research. Bialowieza/Byelovschkaya A dysfunctional split exists between applied and academic research at Bialowieza/Byeloveschkaya. This point reflects 1 and 2 above and has tended to harm legitimate and necessary capabilities. The solution is to initiate a systems analysis of the entire forest which would require the input and coordination of a variety of scientists. If competitive exclusion and niche segregation among scientists has been a modus of the past, the new science demanded of transboundary systems will render such approaches archaic. An attempt should be made to have the fence removed in Bialowieza/Byeloveschkaya. There should be a moratorium on forest harvest in Bialowieza pending the results of research on timber harvest methodologies in support of natural forest

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 system patterns and processes (e.g., long rotation, mixed species, uneven age, snags and fallen logs, and their effects on basic forest parameters such as numbers of species at different trophic levels, and nutrient cycling). Related to 6, research is needed on the direction, scale, and rate of natural processes and changes in remnant natural systems (e.g., changes in natural forest demography and senescence in altered modern environments of Central Europe). FOREST FRAGMENTS, CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, AND ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION An assessment of genetic and demographic risk of the fragments and populations is needed, and it should include an inventory of natural forest fragments (e.g., the seven in Bieszczady, the five in the Ukraine Carpathians, etc.), their constituent animal populations, the minimum viable populations (MVPs) of these animals, and the carrying capacities required to support such MVPs. Trials/experiments on restoration to natural system characteristics should begin on appropriate (e.g., nearby, similar abiotic character) degraded land with the eventual goal of adding to/buffering the transboundary protected systems. There should be no research conducted in areas where feeding of large wild herbivores is occurring, except as it relates to the impact of these animals. TOURISM AND RECREATION Research is required on who visits the Protected Areas, inhabitants of the Protected Area's region, who the potential resource-user populations are, what they want, their attitudes toward nature, their decision-making processes, and non-coercive behavior modification to foster the biodiversity-related goals of the Protected Areas based on the above research (e.g., through environmental education). KRKONOSE TRANSBOUNDARY BIOSPHERE RESERVE Research on the effects of various insect control agents on target and non-target species population dynamics.

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Biodiversity Conservation in Transboundary Protected Areas: Proceedings of an International Workshop Bieszczady and Tatra National Parks, Poland May 15-25, 1994 Research on the genetic variation of plant and animal species from all major trophic levels to determine possible importance of demes on persistence, susceptibility to invaders, genetic dilution, the relationship of variation to pollution resistance, and suitability for restoration material. Trials of management practices presumed necessary to preserve natural areas. MONITORING IN PROTECTED AREAS Carefully conceived, long-term monitoring plans for biodiversity which employ existing regional scale monitoring models need to be developed and applied to protected areas. A protocol for applying regional models to intensive monitoring at the protected area level, and for their use in research and management, should be developed by the transboundary parks. In sum, the participating scientists projected a remarkable consensus on research priorities, which seems to reinforce the desirability of: More diverse, less institutionally dominated research; Integrated systems research, analysis, and depiction; Possible forestry practices fostering natural, old systems; Planning a population-based geometry for protected areas; and Cessation of feeding and moratorium of harvests pending results of research on effects and uses.