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earth system, determine the ecological and socioeconomic consequences of these changes, and identify strategies for adaptation and mitigation that will most benefit society and the environment.

CENR describes the policy context for global change as including the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act Amendments, and various conventions related to global environmental issues (e.g., forestry, desertification, protection of oceans, and biodiversity). Research issues concern the ultimate impact of the current buildup of greenhouse gases on climate, as well as the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion on humans and ecosystems.

The current research program is characterized as including

  • climate change and greenhouse effect research;

  • stratospheric ozone and UV effects research;

  • seasonal to interannual climate fluctuations research; and

  • large-scale ecosystem productivity research.

Research areas designated for enhanced emphasis are

  • evaluating the socioeconomic driving forces of global change;

  • understanding the consequences of global environmental change;

  • developing adaptation and mitigation options; and

  • conducting integrated assessments.

Six milestones are listed for the period 1995–1998, the topics of which range from completing individual studies, to making certain scientific measurements, to fulfilling U.S. commitments to participate in various international cooperative research programs. Overall, CENR proposes that climate change research receive a slight increase in funding for FY 1996.

CENR Goal: Toxic Substances, Hazardous and Solid Waste

The goal of federal toxic substances and hazardous and solid waste research is to prevent or reduce human and ecological exposure to toxic materials, such as pesticide residues, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead, and their adverse consequences by providing the scientific and technical information needed for informed decisionand policy-making and effective problem solving.

CENR describes the policy context for toxic substances and hazardous and solid waste as including nine major statutes, including TSCA, RCRA, and CERCLA, among others. The overall goal of the federal research programs in this area is to provide the scientific and technical information needed for informed decision and policy-making to prevent or reduce human and ecological exposure



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