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TABLE 4 State of Human Health and Welfare VEAs

Human and Health-Related Economic Welfare


Longevity (i.e., avoidance of premature death)


Appropriate physiological function of body systems (i.e., avoidance of morbidity for each of the following systems):



— circulatory

— respiratory

— nervous

— digestive

— musculoskeletal

— endocrine

— immune

— reproductive system, etc.

Psychological health (i.e., avoidance of unnecessary environmental stress)

Health-Related Economic/Welfare Values



— Adequate income

— Time for family, work, and leisure


Value of marketed environmental goods: crops, livestock, timber, fish, shellfish, fur-bearing animals, other species valued for use as food, pets, etc.


Non-animal commercial inputs (chemicals, fertilizer, peat, metals, minerals)


Fossils fuels


Livestocks forage


Water supply for domestic consumption, agriculture, energy production, industrial/commercial uses, waste disposal.


Land and water use for human settlements, transport (e.g., navigation channels), etc.

Other Use Values


Recreation and tourism: camping, hiking, boating, swimming, sightseeing, photography, fishing, hunting, meditation, etc.


Other aesthetic values (e.g., scenic views in residential areas)


Scientific and research value

Non-Use Values


Existence value


Historical, cultural, heritage, and spiritual value


Bequest value


Intrinsic value


Scarcity/uniqueness value

Value of Ecosystem Services (marketed or not, see Tables 1-3)

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