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TABLE 4 State of Human Health and Welfare VEAs

Human and Health-Related Economic Welfare

 

Longevity (i.e., avoidance of premature death)

 

Appropriate physiological function of body systems (i.e., avoidance of morbidity for each of the following systems):

 

 

— circulatory

— respiratory

— nervous

— digestive

— musculoskeletal

— endocrine

— immune

— reproductive system, etc.

Psychological health (i.e., avoidance of unnecessary environmental stress)

Health-Related Economic/Welfare Values

 

 

— Adequate income

— Time for family, work, and leisure

 

Value of marketed environmental goods: crops, livestock, timber, fish, shellfish, fur-bearing animals, other species valued for use as food, pets, etc.

 

Non-animal commercial inputs (chemicals, fertilizer, peat, metals, minerals)

 

Fossils fuels

 

Livestocks forage

 

Water supply for domestic consumption, agriculture, energy production, industrial/commercial uses, waste disposal.

 

Land and water use for human settlements, transport (e.g., navigation channels), etc.

Other Use Values

 

Recreation and tourism: camping, hiking, boating, swimming, sightseeing, photography, fishing, hunting, meditation, etc.

 

Other aesthetic values (e.g., scenic views in residential areas)

 

Scientific and research value

Non-Use Values

 

Existence value

 

Historical, cultural, heritage, and spiritual value

 

Bequest value

 

Intrinsic value

 

Scarcity/uniqueness value

Value of Ecosystem Services (marketed or not, see Tables 1-3)



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