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in California. Project California's primary mission is to create long-term, high-value-added jobs for Californians while enhancing the state's strong commitment to reducing environmental pollution and urban congestion." The quest for the ultra-clean car is also being motivated by regulatory agencies in the state, most notably the Southern California Air Quality Management District.

Meanwhile, an official in the California Governor's Office is focusing on a very different set of goals for environmental science and technology: natural resource issues and critical habitats. As part of the state's efforts to help regions and communities prevent conflicts between humans and endangered species, the state is developing CERES, the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System, which will put large amounts of place-specific environmental data on the Internet so that anyone can learn about local, regional, and statewide conditions. The information is intended to do what other state indicator programs hope to accomplish: make users more aware of trends and the choices individuals or communities can make to influence the trends.

The state's Natural Communities Conservation Planning effort has also established goals in an entirely different format from those described above. After conducting a biological survey of nearly 6,000 square miles of southern California, scientists have published maps showing critical habitat areas that ought to be managed to maintain the diversity of species. The maps translate the somewhat abstract environmental goal of maintaining biological diversity into a set of maps that can guide land acquisition programs and community growth management plans. Another of the goals of the project is to avoid the kind of rigid restrictions on land uses that may result from triggering the Endangered Species Act's protection.

When Goals Need Updating

The emphasis in virtually all of the technology plans described above is on building processes and networks that will be capable of launching an innovative idea into the marketplace as soon as the marketplace demands it. This capacity for opportunism requires systems that are dynamic and capable of change.

Pennsylvania oversees an environmental technology program in need of change because its original mission has lost its relevance in the market. In 1988, the Northeast was becoming increasingly concerned about a solid waste crisis: landfills were filling up and incinerators were being shut down. The Pennsylvania Legislature responded with a statute that required municipalities to recycle glass, paper, and yard waste. The statute also dedicated part of a solid waste tipping feet to an "Environmental Technology Research and Development Fund," which would provide grants to stimulate the recycling industry through the development of new recycling processes and markets. As part of the Ben Franklin Partnership Program, the grants were administered by the state's Office of Technology Development.

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