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to industry and government going for pollution control rather than pollution prevention.10

Managing for the Environment, A Transformation to the Green Company

Since very few companies have made it to this point of managing for the environment, it is difficult to identify the corporate practices and beliefs of this stage through corporate example. This stage is reached when environmental concerns become a core strategic factor in corporate decision-making, infiltrating quality functions, financial measures, and performance criteria in a manner that leads rather than follows public policy. Companies will move beyond concern for the protection of the present environment, to considering the environmental impacts of their activities on future generations. Concerns about sustainable development are fundamentally different from the essentially compliance-related actions that characterize all of the earliest stages of corporate environmental management. Wise resource use and product life-cycle analysis become the instruments for firms to augment short-term goals with efforts at long-term sustainability through the design of new environmentally sound process and product technologies.

There is much uncertainty as to how far or fast companies will go in this final transition step. In many ways the transition is deeper and more wrenching than the shift to total quality management has been. In the TQM case, the field is still littered with firms that are struggling to move TQM into their core competence and culture. For most companies, the management of the greening process becomes a carefully controlled process, and requires continuous monitoring of changes in the overall industry and guiding their own actions accordingly. It is for these companies that trade associations play such an important role. By outlining the industry-wide definitions of what the environmentally responsible company ought to be, they are providing assurances that the industry as a whole is moving together. Each participating firm will expend comparable effort, face similar liabilities, and reach the new paradigm at roughly the same time and rate. Therefore, it is from these trade associations that we can see the beginnings of a forecast of the definition of a green company.

The Nature of Goals

Prior to discussing specific industry environmental goals, it is necessary to clarify what we mean by goals. Goals for industry may take the form of specific targets (to increase market share to X% by year Y) or general statements of intent (Hewlett-Packard's corporate objective on citizenship is a commitment to "honor our obligations to society by being an economic, intellectual, and social asset to each nation and each community in which we operate"11). In many cases the distinction between these more general "visions" of a desirable future and specific



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