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targets for desired ''end-state" conditions with more general process-oriented goals. Second, they move beyond environmental goal-setting as merely an exercise in establishing targets for pollution prevention and waste reduction. Finally, they are "stretch" goals, which require the reconceptualization of environmental issues by a number of employees, beyond those involved in compliance activities. While this approach to environmental goal-setting is far from widespread, its mere existence marks an evolution from the early Pollution Prevention Pays programs initiated by 3M and others.

Goal-Setting by Industry Groups

In this section, we examine cases of coordinated action, which seem to be motivated by several key factors, notably,

  • the need to establish industry-wide legitimacy,

  • the desire to promote the industry's product as an environmentally attractive alternative,

  • the demonstration of leadership to preempt negative public opinion, and

  • the aim to restrict regulatory obligations.

Although specific programs are placed into one of these categories in the discussion that follows, many, if not all, serve more than one of the objectives in the list.

Coordinated Action to Establish Legitimacy

Two recent initiatives, by the chemical and petroleum industry associations, seek to guide the environmental activities of their members by articulating principles and practices for environmental management. These programs both arose following a major incident that threatened the industry's right to operate and seriously undermined public confidence. The chemical industry responded to Union Carbide's toxic release at Bhopal, India, by creating the Responsible Care program, and the petroleum industry responded to the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska by creating a similar STEP (Strategies for Today's Environmental Partnership) program. Such voluntary programs establish guiding principles and management practices, create mechanisms for self-reporting and the public disclosure of information, but rely only on peer and pressure and association membership to enforce compliance.

The U.S. Chemical Manufacturing Association's Responsible Care program was initiated in 1988 and now consists of ten guiding principles and six management codes to govern the health, safety, and environmental practices of the industry. Participation in the Responsible Care program, which involves committing to implement the management practices and reporting on progress against them, is a condition of membership in the Chemical Manufacturing Association (CMA). Although the program was announced seven years ago, the final two codes (Product

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