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Linking Science and Technology to Society's Environmental Goals
which are dominated by the huge costs of restoring environmental quality in DOE's defense facilities. Elsewhere in the government, however, R&D is a major (or in some cases the major) part of agency environmental programs.
Definition and Overview
An overview of environmental R&D in the federal government is contained in Table 4. Details on the environmental R&D activities of the major federal agencies are shown in Tables 5 through 17. As elsewhere in this paper, these tables do not include information on Department of Defense military activities. The tables show a three-year trend, from FY 1993 through FY 1995. The definition of environmental R&D is largely the same as in the author's previous work on federal funding for environmental R&D:
environmental sciences, including (a) environmental life sciences, such as environmental biology, forestry, marine biology, and related fields, and (b) physical environmental sciences, such as oceanography, geology, and atmospheric sciences, excluding extraterrestrial research;
engineering and other sciences related to the impacts of natural and anthropogenic activities on the environment, including prevention, control, amelioration, and regulation;
social sciences related to the environment, such as environmental economics, and social science research on cultural and institutional factors affecting sustainable development, pollution prevention, adaptation to global change, etc.; and
information and data sciences related to the environment, such as computer sciences and specialized information management R&D identified in agency budgets (Gramp, Teich, and Nelson 1992, p. 2).
There are, however, a few differences. The tables in this paper include the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a unit of the National Institutes of Health, which was not included in the 1992 report because the working definition chosen for that report excluded environmental health. They exclude (for reasons of time and resources) several agencies with relatively small environmental R&D portfolios: the Agency for International Development (USAID), the Smithsonian Institution, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the Department of Transportation (DOT).
The coverage of those agencies included is generally analogous to that in the 1992 report. However, because of organizational changes and changes in budget presentation, as well as possible inconsistencies in data collection techniques, the data from the 1992 tables, which cover FY 1990–1992, have not been integrated with the FY 1993–1995 data collected for this paper. To allow readers to gain a rough sense of the trends over six years, the tables from the 1992 report are