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the environmental movement into what currently has become an adversarial process that pits industry against government and parts of government against itself.

However, one major tenet remains that nearly everyone can agree on: While the general ends of these policies are not in dispute, the means to achieve them are. Many public opinion analysts would agree that environmentalism has become an idea fixed in the composite of values that define America's basic political beliefs and, thus, now competes for its ''market share" of government resources at all levels. In short, our environmental goals should aim for what most Americans want: the protection, preservation, and restoration of our environment. If we focus on protection and preservation in the right way, then restoration needs will diminish over time.

In the few minutes I have on the satellite, I would like to briefly discuss three principles that must guide and inform our goals in environmental policy-making: (1) applying risk management to our environmental programs to ensure we're spending our money in the most optimal way; (2) using market forces to the maximum extent feasible to alter the incentives of environmental protection; and (3) recognizing and acting upon our moral obligations to others and to future generations in exercising environmental stewardship. I believe that these three values need to be utilized within the legal, political, and institutional foundations and processes that determine our environmental goals.


Let me begin with a basic environmental premise: If you pick something up in the universe, you find it, connected to everything else. Coherently integrating the complex web within ecological systems to the social, economic, and political sectors of our society bespeaks of the difficulty in formulating environmental goals. William Pederson has put forth a relevant, but critical, perspective on this point in a recent Loyola Law Review article1: We have been making environmental laws but not environmental goals for the past quarter century. He states, for example, that in lieu of a clean water policy, we have a Clean Water Act. Although the "goal" in the Clean Water Act of 1972 was fishable and swimmable waters in the United States by 1980, the government pursued many activities that adversely affect water quality: agricultural and transportation subsidies, flood insurance, timber leasing, and water pricing. Fixing this compartmentalization of governmental activity should be one step in establishing environmental goals.

Another example of the duplicity and compartmentalization of environmental policy lies in the patchwork regulation of my own program. The Department of Energy's Environmental Management program is charged with the mission of cleaning up the legacy of 50 years of nuclear weapons production at our complex


William F. Pederson, Loyola Law Review "Protecting the Environment—What Does That Mean?" (April 1994).

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