activities onsite between 1 July 1946 and 31 August 1946 or involving materiel used at the tests. It provided rosters of CROSSROADS participants to the Medical Follow-up Agency (MFUA) in two stages: an initial file in 1986 and the final file in 1994.

When this study was begun, each military service maintained its own Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) activity, responsible, among other things, for identifying veterans involved in the above-ground nuclear test program. In 1986, Navy and Army NTPR offices provided data to MFUA for approximately 40,500 alleged nonduplicate participants. Air Corps personnel were covered by Army records at that time; the Navy provided Marine Corps records.

In 1992, work was interrupted on this project.12 By the time MFUA resumed the study in 1994, DNA had consolidated the service-based NTPR teams into a single effort. DNA, via the consolidated NTPR, performed extensive data clean-up efforts to bring participant data from different branches into a common format; to update, verify, and correct data; and to create a unique identifier (heretofore nonexistent) for each record. In August 1994, DNA supplied MFUA with that updated participant list. It is the basis of the current study.

For both the 1986 file and the 1994 file, DNA identified the ships that participated at Bikini Atoll during the CROSSROADS operational period. Individuals assigned to those ships at that time plus some individuals serving at Kwajalein and Enewetak islands to support CROSSROADS were identified using the following data sources: "service personnel records, unit diaries, ship deck logs, ship/unit muster rolls, ship/unit officer lists, unit histories, morning reports, and operation participant listings."13 Data items sought were name, rank, and service number, although date and place of birth were also noted in the 1986 file. The quality of the various identifiers varied; other identifiers, such as Social Security Number, were noted when available.

A participant cohort numbering 42,548 was developed across all military branches, using the individuals identified in the 1994 file; data items for those individuals were augmented with 1986 information as appropriate.


(C) Service as a member of the garrison or maintenance forces on Eniwetok during the periods June 21, 1951 through July 1, 1952, August 7, 1956 through August 7, 1957 or November 1, 1958 through April 30, 1959.

(D) Assignment to official military duties at Naval Shipyards involving the decontamination of ships that participated in Operation Crossroads.

(v) The term 'operational period' means: ...

(B) For operation CROSSROADS the period July 1, 1946 through August 31, 1946. (Authority 38 U.S.C. 312)"


 Circumstances—including the illness and death of the principal investigator, Dr. Dennis Robinette and federal funding shortages—caused this study to be put on hold.


 DNA memorandum dated 11 July 1994 (see Appendix B).

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