References

Beebe GW and Simon AH. Ascertainment of mortality in the U.S. veteran population. American Journal of Epidemiology 89:636–643, 1969.

Bradley D. No Place to Hide 1946/1984. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1948, 1983.


Caldwell GG, Kelley DB, and Heath CW. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test. A preliminary report. Journal of the American Medical Association 244:1575–1578, 1980.

Caldwell, GG, Kelley DB, and Zack M. Mortality and cancer frequency among military nuclear test (SMOKY) participants, 1957 through 1979. Journal of the American Medical Association 250:620–624, 1983.

Campbell R. NAAV's mortality study of civilian test site workers and Ohio uranium plant workers verifies previous findings of premature death rates of military personnel exposed to ionizing radiation. Atomic Veteran's Newsletter 16(1), Spring 1994.

Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 34:187–220, 1972.


Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, et al. A summary of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom's atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. British Medical Journal 296:332, 1988.

Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, et al. Mortality and Cancer Incidence 1952–1990 in UK Participants in the UK Atmospheric Nuclear Weapon Tests and Experimental Programmes. Report No. NRPB-R266, National Radiological Protection Board, Oxon, United Kingdom, 1993.



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--> References Beebe GW and Simon AH. Ascertainment of mortality in the U.S. veteran population. American Journal of Epidemiology 89:636–643, 1969. Bradley D. No Place to Hide 1946/1984. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1948, 1983. Caldwell GG, Kelley DB, and Heath CW. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test. A preliminary report. Journal of the American Medical Association 244:1575–1578, 1980. Caldwell, GG, Kelley DB, and Zack M. Mortality and cancer frequency among military nuclear test (SMOKY) participants, 1957 through 1979. Journal of the American Medical Association 250:620–624, 1983. Campbell R. NAAV's mortality study of civilian test site workers and Ohio uranium plant workers verifies previous findings of premature death rates of military personnel exposed to ionizing radiation. Atomic Veteran's Newsletter 16(1), Spring 1994. Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 34:187–220, 1972. Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, et al. A summary of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom's atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. British Medical Journal 296:332, 1988. Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, et al. Mortality and Cancer Incidence 1952–1990 in UK Participants in the UK Atmospheric Nuclear Weapon Tests and Experimental Programmes. Report No. NRPB-R266, National Radiological Protection Board, Oxon, United Kingdom, 1993.

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--> Darby SC, Kendall GM, Fell TP, et al. Further follow up of mortality and incidence of cancer in men from the United Kingdom who participated in the United Kingdom's atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. British Medical Journal 307:1530–1535, 1993. DNA (Defense Nuclear Agency). Operation CROSSROADS—1946. Report No. DNA-6032F, Alexandria, VA: Defense Nuclear Agency, 1984. DNA (Defense Nuclear Agency). Operation CROSSROADS. Fact Sheet, Public Affairs Office, Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, April 5, 1984. Federal Register (6–1) Vol. 54 No 118, p. 26029, Wednesday June 21, 1989 Rules and regulations. Gelband H. A discussion of questions about the 1985 NAS report Mortality of Nuclear Weapons Test Participants. Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Washington DC, August 1992. GAO (General Accounting Office). Mortality Study of Atmospheric Nuclear Test Participants is Flawed. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, U.S. Senate, Report No. GAO/RCED-92-182. Washington DC: GAO, August 1992. Gunderson EKE. Organizational and environmental influences on health and performance. Report 76–39, Naval Medical Research and Development Command, Department of the Navy, 1976. Helmkamp JC and Bone CM. Hospitalizations for accidents and injuries in the U.S. Navy. I. Duty station assignment and duty status. Report No. 85–5, Naval Health Research Center, Naval medical Research and Development Command, Bethesda, MD, 1985a. Helmkamp JC and Bone CM. Hospitalizations for accidents and injuries in the U.S. Navy. II. External cause of accident, duty station assignment, and level of seniority. Report No. 85–8, Naval Health Research Center, Naval Medical Research and Development Command , Bethesda, MD, 1985b. Helmkamp JC and Colcord CL. Hospitalization rates among selected Navy enlisted occupations by age, education and paygrade. Report No. 84–34, Naval Health Research Center, Naval Medical Research and Development Command, Bethesda, MD, 1984. Ingram DD and Makuc DM. Statistical issues in analyzing the NHANES. Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. (Vital and health statistics. Series 2. Data evaluation and methods research, No. 121.) Hyattsville, MD: DHHS publication No. (PHS) 94–1395, 1994. IOM (Institute of Medicine). Review of the dosimetry data available in the Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) program. An interim letter report of the Committee to Study the Mortality of Military Personnel Present at Atmospheric Tests of Nuclear Weapons to the Defense Nuclear Agency. May 15, 1995a.

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--> IOM (Institute of Medicine). Adverse Reproductive Outcomes in Families of Atomic Veterans: The Feasibility of Epidemiologic Studies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995b. NCI (National Cancer Institute). Updated U.S. Mortality Rates (December 1993). In Information Management Services, Inc., Rockville, MD, letter dated February 1, 1995. NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). Health, United States, 1991. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service, 1992. NRC (National Research Council). Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations). Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990. Naus JI. Data Quality Control and Editing. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1975. NAVSPERS. Career pattern of the United States Navy. NAVPERS-NRB-52084-7 Feb 1949-50M (B91-0). Page WF. VA mortality reporting for World War II Army veterans (letter). American Journal of Public Health 82(1): 124–125, 1992. Page WF, Braun MM, and Caporaso NE. Ascertainment of mortality in the U.S. veteran population: World War II twins. Military Medicine 160:351–355, 1995. Pierce DA, Yukiko S, Preston KL, Vaeth M, and Mabuchi K. Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors, Report 12, Part I. Cancer:1950–1990. Radiation Research 146:1–37, 1996 Preston DL, Lubin JH, Pierce DA, and McConney ME. Epicure: User's Guide. Seattle, WA: HiroSoft International Corporation, 1988–93. Robinette CD, Jablon S, and Preston TL. Studies of Participants in Nuclear Tests. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985. Rockefeller JD IV. Opening statement, November 14, 1985 hearing before the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, United States Senate. Oversight on Issues Pertaining to Veterans' Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. S. Hrg. 99–542. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. SAS Institute Inc. SAS Technical Report P-229, SAS/STAT Software.' Changes and Enhancements, Release 6.07. Cary, ND: SAS Institute, Inc., 1992. Shigematsu I, Ito C, Kamada N, et al. Effects of A-Bomb Radiation on the Human Body. Tokyo: Bunkodo, 1995. Stender WW and Walker E. The National Personnel Records Center fire: a study in disaster. The American Archivist 57:521, 1974. UNSCEAR. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. 1994 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. New York: United Nations, 1994. Upton AC. Radiation. In Cancer Medicine (second edition), JF Holland and E Frei III, editors. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1982.

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--> VA (Department of Veterans Affairs). Letter from Mr. J. Gary Hickman, Director, Compensation and Pension Service to Mr. D. M. Schaeffer, NTPR program, Defense Nuclear Agency, 7 July 1993. Watanabe KK, Kang HK, and Dalager NA. Cancer mortality risk among military participants of a 1958 atmospheric nuclear weapons test. American Journal of Public Health, 85:523, 1995. World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). In The Educational Annotation of ICD-9-CM (4th edition), CD Puckett, editor. Reno, NV: Channel Publishing, 1995.