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--> Resource Sharing in Biomedical Research Kenneth I. Berns, Enriqueta C. Bond, and Frederick J. Manning, Editors Committee on Resource Sharing in Biomedical Research Division of Health Sciences Policy INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 96-71100 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05582-2 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, Lock Box 285, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP on-line bookstore at http://www.nap.edu/nap/bookstore. Call (202) 334-2352 for more information on the other activities of the Institute of Medicine, or visit the IOM home page at http://www.nas.edu/iom. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatlichemuseen in Berlin. Cover design by Francesca Moghari.
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--> Committee on Resource Sharing in Biomedical Research KENNETH I. BERNS, Cochair,* ** Professor and Chairman, Department of Microbiology, Cornell University Medical College ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Cochair, President, The Burroughs Welcome Fund, Morrisville, North Carolina CHARLES R. CANTOR, Director, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Biophysics, Boston University LINDA C. CORK,* Chairman, Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine DAVID W. MARTIN, JR., President, Lynx Therapeutics, Inc., Hayward, California FRANCIS J. MEYER, Associate Vice-Chancellor and Director, Office of Technology Development, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill RUSSELL ROSS,* Professor, Department of Pathology and Adjunct Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Vascular Biology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle MICHAEL SAAG, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine and Associate Director, General Clinical Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham Study Staff VALERIE SETLOW, Director, Division of Health Science Policy, Institute of Medicine ERIC FISCHER, Director, Board on Biology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Academy of Sciences FREDERICK J. MANNING, Study Director MARGO CULLEN, Project Assistant JAMAINE TINKER, Financial Associate * Institute of Medicine member. ** National Academy of Sciences member.
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--> Preface The United States is entering an era when, more than ever, the sharing of resources and information may be critical to scientific progress. Research and development programs are unlikely to escape continuing efforts to control federal spending, making optimal use of resources an imperative. Although competition undoubtedly has been a vital factor in the continuing excellence of American science, every dollar saved by avoiding duplication and producing economies of scale will become increasingly important as funding declines. As an initial step in exploring how best to do that, the National Research Council provided support for a workshop aimed at developing consensus within the research community about critical issues related to the sharing of resources. An eight-member steering committee selected to provide a broad spectrum of experience with shared resources was charged with planning the workshop and providing this report on the workshop and the committee's conclusions and recommendations. The specific goals of the workshop, which was held in Washington, D.C., January 22–23, 1996, were to examine the status of resource sharing in one or more categories of "resource" in the biomedical sciences, to identify critical barriers and opportunities, and to develop a consensus about what needs to be done in this arena. Although the committee bears full responsibility for the conclusions and recommendations in the report, we would be seriously remiss if we failed to acknowledge the contributions of numerous others to both the planning and the conduct of the workshop. First, we owe thanks to the small group of "liaisons" from federal agencies and professional societies who helped us decide on the form and content of the workshop: James Brown of the National Science Foundation, Maxwell Cowan of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Mark Frankel of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Allan Shipp of the Association of American Medical Colleges, Marvin Snyder of the
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--> Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, David Thomasson of the Department of Energy, Fred Tyner of the Army Medical Research and Material Command, and Judith Vaitukaitis of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A second group whose hard work made the workshop a success is comprised of the featured speakers—the "presenters" from whom we learned so much about the rewards and trials of resource sharing in today's biomedical research environment: Bruce Alberts of the National Academy of Sciences, Raymond Cypess of the American Type Culture Collection, Chris Somerville of the Carnegie Institution and the Multinational Coordinated Arabidopsis Thaliana Genome Research Project, Muriel Davisson of The Jackson Laboratory, William Morton of the Washington Regional Primate Research Center, Steven Ealick of the Macromolecular Crystallography Resource at Cornell, Anthony Carrano of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, David Barry of Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Eugene Sokourenko of LabSearch International, Herbert Tabor of NIH and the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Jerome Kassirer of the New England Journal of Medicine, and Harold Varmus of NIH. Third, as committee cochairs we are acutely aware of the contributions that the Institute of Medicine staff have made to the success of the study. Special thanks are due to Project Assistant Margo Cullen, who made our travel and meetings as comfortable and convenient as possible and provided outstanding administrative support both at the meetings and in the painstaking production of the final report. We are particularly grateful to Study Director Rick Manning for his skilled and professional support in shepherding the committee through its task. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the individual and collective efforts of the committee members. It was a pleasure to have worked with this group of busy but unselfish professionals who volunteered their valuable time in sharing their knowledge and experience with their fellow scientists. KENNETH I. BERNS, COCHAIR ENRIQUETA C. BOND, COCHAIR
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 13 Competition for Funds, 14 Incentives for Scientists, 14 Nationalism, 16 Methods and Goals of This Study, 17 References, 20 2 The American Type Culture Collection 23 General Facilities, 24 Programs, 25 Ownership and Access Issues, 29 Cost Issues, 30 Other Issues and Problems, 32 3 The Multinational Coordinated Arabidopsis Thaliana Genome Research Project 33 Project Elements, 33 Ownership and Access Issues, 35 Cost Issues, 37 Other Issues and Problems, 37 4 The Jackson Laboratory 39 Animal Resource Programs, 40 Ownership and Access Issues, 42 Cost Issues, 43 Other Issues and Problems, 44
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--> 5 The Washington Regional Primate Research Center 45 Facilities and Programs, 46 Ownership and Access Issues, 48 Cost Issues, 49 Other Issues and Problems, 50 6 The Macromolecular Crystallography Resource at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source 53 User Facilities for Protein Crystallography at Synchrotrons, 53 The MacCHESS Research Resource, 54 Ownership and Access Issues, 56 Cost Issues, 58 Other Issues and Problems, 59 7 The Human Genome Center: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 61 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 61 Human Genome Center, 62 Ownership and Access Issues, 68 Summary of Issues and Problems, 69 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 71 Features of Successful Resource Sharing, 71 Issues and Problems, 76 Recommendations, 84 Appendix A Workshop Program, 91 Appendix B Acronyms, 95