Taking Flight

Education and Training for Aviation Careers

Janet S. Hansen and Clinton V. Oster, Jr., Editors

Committee on Education and Training for Civilian Aviation Careers

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC
1997



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--> Taking Flight Education and Training for Aviation Careers Janet S. Hansen and Clinton V. Oster, Jr., Editors Committee on Education and Training for Civilian Aviation Careers Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1997

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and funded under contract no. EA9409001. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Taking flight : education and training for aviation careers / Janet S. Hansen and Clinton V. Oster, editors ; Committee on Education and Training for Civilian Aviation Careers, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. p. cm Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Aeronautics—Vocational guidance. I. Hansen, Janet S. II. Oster, Clinton V. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Education and Training for Civilian Aviation Careers. TL561.T35 1997 629.13'0023—dc21 97-1965 CIP Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20418 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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--> COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR CIVILIAN AVIATION CAREERS CLINTON V. OSTER, JR. (Chair), School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University MARGARET BATY, International Women's Air and Space Museum, Dayton, Ohio SANDY BAUM, Department of Economics, Skidmore College DOUGLAS C. BIRDSALL, Northwest Airlines, Stamford, Connecticut CAPTAIN I.J. DUNCAN, Airbus Service Company, Inc., Miami Springs, Florida JACQUELINE FLEMING, Barnard College and Motivation Research Corporation, New York CAPTAIN PERRY JONES, Delta Airlines, Montclair, New Jersey JOHN R. MEYER, Center for Business and Government, Harvard University ISAAC R. NETTEY, School of Technology, Texas Southern University JUDITH ORASANU, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California WILLIE PEARSON, JR., Department of Sociology, Wake Forest University STEVEN SLIWA, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida HARRY THIE, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. JAMES C. WILLIAMS, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio FRED WORKLEY, National Air Transport Association, Alexandria, Virginia JANET S. HANSEN, Study Director GARY W. BALDWIN, Research Associate THERESA NOONAN, Project Assistant

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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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--> Contents     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   vii     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   13 2   THE AVIATION INDUSTRY AND ITS WORKFORCE   18     The Aviation Industry   18     The Aviation Workforce   30     Worker Supply and Demand in the Aviation Industry   50     Recapitulation   52 3   THE IMPACT OF MILITARY DOWNSIZING   53     The Military as a Supplier of Pilots and Technicians   54     The Military Drawdown: Implications for Minorities and Women   61 4   CIVILIAN TRAINING FOR AVIATION CAREERS   76     Training Pathways for Specialized Aviation Occupations   77     Challenges for a Civilian Training System   98 5   DIVERSIFYING THE AVIATION WORKFORCE   114     A Historical Perspective   115     Developing Interest   120     Basic Academic Competencies   128     Barriers   139

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-->     REFERENCES   152     APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES   163     INDEX   169

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--> Acknowledgments The Committee on Education and Training for Civilian Aviation Careers is deeply indebted to a number of individuals who made significant contributions to its work. First and foremost are the staff at the National Research Council. Gary Baldwin served as research associate throughout the project. He undertook special responsibility for tracking down frequently elusive literature and data; he also wrote invaluable background materials that assisted the committee in elucidating the issues, identifying the relevant evidence, and drawing appropriate conclusions. Senior Project Assistant Theresa Noonan coordinated the committee's meetings with great efficiency and prepared successive drafts of the manuscript. Alexandra Wigdor, as always, provided wisdom and guidance throughout. Christine McShane's editing added greatly to the clarity of the report. Elsa Riemer prepared the final version of the manuscript for publication with skill and care. Consultant Nancy Kober gave important assistance with writing in the late stages of the committee's deliberations. The committee is also grateful for the willingness of literally dozens of individuals from government agencies, aviation trade and interest groups, colleges and schools, research organizations, industry, and the aviation press to help the committee accumulate essential information and evidence. A few of these individuals deserve special thanks for their good nature and helpful responses to numerous requests throughout the study: R. Gregg Carr, FAPA Dr. Gary Eiff, Purdue University Zee Ferris, Defense Manpower Data Center

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--> Gary Kiteley, University Aviation Association Dr. Larry Lackey, Federal Aviation Administration Andrew Robinson, Federal Aviation Administration Louis Smith, FAPA Leslie Vipond, Federal Aviation Administration Phillip Woodruff, Federal Aviation Administration Clinton V. Oster, Chair Janet S. Hansen, Study Director

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--> Taking Flight

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