Index



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--> A Ab initio training, 6, 89, 90-92 comparison with other training pathways, 92-98 prospects, 98 Accreditation systems, 7, 110 for curriculum standardization, 111 rationale, 111 recommendations for, 7, 111-112 Affirmative action, 118-119 Agricultural pilots, 40 Air taxis, 25-26 pilot compensation, 40 Air traffic controller's strike, 108 Airframe and powerplant technician, 43, 81 Airline Deregulation Act, 13, 23 Airline transport pilot, 41-42 Airports intermodal transportation system, 27-28 numbers of, 27 projections for growth, 100-101 Airway science program appropriations, 108 current status, 109-110 curriculum development, 110 in expanding workforce diversity, 109 failure of, 108 growth of, 108 origins of, 107 rationale, 107 specializations, 107-108 in standardization of training curricula, 108-109 Aviation industry ab initio training programs, 6, 89, 90-92 aircraft size, 100-101 benefits of airway science program for, 108-109 classification system, 24-27 collaboration for training, 103-104, 106, 110-111, 112 in collegiate accreditation system, 7, 111-112 commercial market, 25 economic significance, 28-30 gender-neutral terminology, 125 general aviation market, 27 hiring criteria, 10, 141-142

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--> hiring patterns, 33-35 historical development, 18-24 in intermodal transportation system, 27-28 local service airlines, 21, 22 market characteristics, 13, 18, 22-23, 99 mergers, 20, 22 minority participation, 116-117 national interest, 1, 13 participation in training, 102-103, 105, 106-107, 110-113 partnerships for increasing workforce diversity, 122-125 projected workforce needs, 99-100, 105 recent history, 13-14 relations between carriers, 26-27 responsiveness to economic conditions, 3, 30 supplemental carriers, 21 trunk carriers, 20-21, 22 wage and salary trends, 36-40 willingness to increase workforce diversity, 147-151 women in, 116, 117 worker supply and demand, 50-52, 105 workforce characteristics, 2-4, 15, 16, 18, 28, 29, 30-33 Aviation maintenance technician (transport), 44, 83 Aviation maintenance technicians, 3, 43-44, 102, 125 collegiate training, 83-84 See also Technicians Aviation repair specialist, 44 B Black-McKellar Act, 19-20 C Certificated carriers definition and characteristics, 25 employment, 31-33 historical development, 20-22 Certification and licensing, 15 airline qualifications and, 7-8, 112-113 flight instructors/schools, 79 flight time requirements, 112-113 government role, 52 for minorities and women, 115-116 on-the-job training and, 78 pilots, 40-42, 79-80 recommendations for, 7-8, 112-113 technicians, 42-44, 81, 83-84 Civil Aeronautics Board, 20-22, 23 Collegiate aviation training, 6 accreditation, 7, 111-112 alternative programs, 89-90 career outcomes, 88-89 comparison with other training pathways, 92-98 costs, 139-140 current characteristics, 81, 82-83, 84 enrollment/graduation data, 84-88 FAA certification and, 7-8, 112-113 flight time, 88, 89 historical development, 81-82, 105-106 industry collaboration, 103-104, 106-107, 110-112 loans and subsidies, 139-141 outreach to underrepresented groups, 122 pilot quality, 96 program offerings, 82, 84 prospects, 98, 103 recommendations for, 7, 9, 111, 112 specialized pilot programs, 90 standardization, 7, 106, 110-111 for technicians, 83-84 women in, 87-88 Commuter air carriers, 25-26 Compensation for aviation workers, 3 deregulation effects, 36, 39 formula for pilots, 20 historical patterns, 22, 23 industry comparison, 37-39

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--> in regulated market, 22, 36 seniority and, 36, 39-40 trends, 36-40 Contract Mail Act of 1925, 19 Copilots, 36, 40, 80 Corporate aircraft, 40 Cost of training, 10, 104 ab initio programs, 91, 94 airway science program appropriations, 108 as barrier to increasing diversity, 139-142 college loans and subsidies, 139-141 comparison of training pathways, 92, 94 paid by trainee, 89, 91, 94-95, 141 recommendations for financial assistance, 10, 141-142 Council on Aviation Accreditation, 110, 111 Crew resource management, 96, 106 D Deregulation, 13, 17, 20 labor costs and, 36, 39 origins of, 23 outcomes, 23-24 Discriminatory employment practices, 11 current status, 4, 44 glass ceiling, 148-151 historical patterns, 44, 115-117 legal prohibition, 117-118 Diversity of workforce academic competencies of underrepresented groups, 10, 128-129, 131 , 136-139 affirmative action oversight, 118-119 aviation industry commitment to, 147-148, 151 barriers to, 10-11, 139 comparison of training pathways as contributing to, 92, 95, 96 cost of training as obstacle to, 139-142 current concerns, 1, 2, 3-4, 14, 17, 114-115 current profile, 15-16, 44-50 data sources, 44-46, 52 developing interest of underrepresented groups in aviation, 8-9, 119, 120-128 effects of airway science program, 109 historical patterns, 8, 14, 44, 114, 115-119 implications of military downsizing, 4, 61-62, 69-75 industry comparisons, 45 legal issues, 117-118 in military aviation, 4, 53-54 partnerships for promoting, 122-125 pilot selection criteria and, 142-147 prospects, 113 public image of aviation industry and, 125-128 rationale for increasing, 2, 8, 114 recommendations for increasing, 8-11, 121, 122, 124-125, 128, 138-139, 141, 142, 147, 151 strategies for increasing, 119 student-paid training as obstacle to, 95, 96 in upper management, 148-151 E Education and training for aviation careers ab initio, 6, 89, 90-92 accreditation systems, 7, 110, 111 adaptability to industry needs, 97, 98-105 barriers to minority participation, 10-11, 139 basic academic competencies, 10, 128-131 career continuum, 51 career opportunities information, 123-125 certification for mechanics, 42-44 collegiate-industry collaboration, 7, 103-104, 106, 112 comparison of pathways, 92-98

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--> as contributing to workforce diversity, 92, 95, 96 cost of, 10, 89, 92, 94-95 current concerns, 1-2, 14 current enrollment, 15 employment market and, 80-81 financial assistance, 10, 141-142 foreign hires, 5, 6, 78 framework for assessing effectiveness of, 92 freestanding schools for, 79, 80, 81 future prospects, 5, 6-7, 97-98 government participation, 107 industry participation, 102-103, 105, 106-107, 110-113 for minorities and women, historical development of, 115-116 minority preparation in elementary/secondary school, 131-134 on-the-job, 5, 78-81 outcome prediction, 144-146 outreach to underrepresented groups, 8-9, 119, 120-122 pathways, 5-6, 17, 77-78 pilot licensing requirements, 40-42, 79-80 pilot quality, 95 pilot selection criteria, 10-11, 42, 51, 79, 142-147 projected workforce needs, 99-102 public perception problems, 126-128 range of employment opportunities, 125-126 reliance on military-prepared candidates, 76-77 technological adaptability, 97, 106 time to workforce, 92, 95 transitional training, 80 See also Airway science program; Collegiate aviation training; Elementary/secondary school education; Military training Elementary/secondary school education, 127-128 gender differences in math and science preparation, 135-136 interventions with underrepresented groups, 136-139 minority exposure to math and science, 131-134 teacher attitudes toward minority achievement, 134-135 F Fares deregulation effects, 23-24 regulation of, 22 Federal Aviation Administration, 24 basic educational/informational activities, 123-125 certification, 3, 5, 15, 25, 51, 78, 112-113 certification for mechanics, 7-8, 40-44 commercial aviation classifications, 24, 25-27 in development of accreditation system, 112 employment, 30 flight school/instructor certification, 79 partnerships for increasing workforce diversity, 122-123 recommendations for, 7-8, 112-113 See also Airway science program Feeder carriers, 26-27 Financial assistance, 10, 141-142 First officers. See Copilot Fixed-base operators, 27 Flight instructors, 79 Foreign airlines, 6 Foreign-trained personnel, 5, 6, 78 comparison with other training pathways, 92-98 projections, 98 G General aviation, 27 Glass ceiling, 148-151

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--> H Helicopter pilots, 57, 59, 63 K Kelly Act. See Contract Mail Act of 1925 L Labor unions, 15 Local service airlines, 21, 22 M Mail service, 19-20 Management workforce data sources, 15 diversity, 44, 47-50, 148-151 Manufacturing industry, 30 Mechanics, 30-31, 33, 43 foreign hires, 78 hiring patterns, 35 terminology, 125 wage trends, 36-37 workforce diversity, 44, 45-47 See also Technicians Mergers, 20, 22, 24 Military downsizing capacity of civilian system to make up for, 98-99, 102, 103 distribution of aviation-related positions, 57-59 diversity of enlistment and, 69 implications for worker supply, 2, 4, 14, 17, 53-54, 76 implications for workforce diversity, 2, 4, 14, 17, 61-62, 69-75 trends, 59-60 Military training advantages, 6 airline hiring patterns, 54-57 aviation enrollment trends, 59-60 aviation industry reliance on, 76-77 collegiate training and, 82 comparison with other training pathways, 92-98 distribution of aviation-related positions, 57 diversity of trainee population, 4, 53-54, 68-69 historical contribution to civilian aviation, 54 minority enrollment, 62-63, 115, 116 pilot quality, 96-97 pilot selection procedures, 142-146 projections for pilots, 60-61 women in, 63-69, 116 Minorities in airway science program, 109 elementary/secondary school math and science, 131-134 in military aviation, 4, 53-54, 115, 116 military enlistment trends, 62-63, 69 participation in aviation industry, 1, 3-4, 115 student-paid training as obstacle to employment, 95, 96 teacher expectations, 134-135 See also Diversity of workforce O On-the-job training, 5, 78 comparison with other training pathways, 92-98 future prospects, 98 for pilots, 78-81 for technicians, 5, 78, 81 Outsourcing, 33 P Pell grants, 139-140 Pilots collegiate training, 81-83, 85-90 compensation, 3, 20, 23 continuum of training, 51 foreign hires, 78 gender-neutral terminology, 125 hiring patterns, 3, 33-35, 50-51, 54-57

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--> job task analysis skills, 145 licensing requirements, 40-42, 79-80 military backgrounds, 4, 54-57 military downsizing, 59, 60-61, 69 military enlistment, trends in, 59-60, 69 minorities in military, 63, 69 minority and women, historical development of, 115-119 nonairline, 40 numbers of, 2 on-the-job training, 5, 78-81 personality characteristics, 145-146 quality assessment, 95-96 selection criteria, 10-11, 42, 51, 142-147 training pathways, 5-6, 77-78 wage trends, 36, 39-40 women in military, 65-69 worker supply and demand, 50-51, 105 workforce characteristics, 16, 30-31, 33 workforce diversity, 4, 44, 45-47 workforce projections, 99-103 See also Education and training for aviation careers Post Office, 19-20 Productivity, 22-23 pilot, 101-102 Public perception and understanding, 9 aviation image problems, 125-126 developing minority group interest in aviation, 8-9, 119, 120-121 educational efforts for improving, 123-125 of industry hiring criteria, 10-11, 142 of technical/vocational education, 126-128 R Regulatory environment affirmative action oversight, 118-119 civil rights law, 117-118 commercial aviation classification, 25-27 competition, 20-21 current, 52 fare control, 22 historical development, 19-22 historical practice, 13, 16-17 labor costs and, 22, 36 Repairmen, 43, 44 S Science education, 10 Seniority, 36, 39-40 Student loans, 139-141 Supplemental carriers, 21 T Technicians airframe and powerplant, 43, 81 certification, 42-44 collegiate training, 81, 83-84 current workforce, 16, 30-31 hiring patterns, 3, 50-51 military enlistment, historical patterns of, 59-60 military training for, 57 minorities in military, 63, 69 numbers of, 2 on-the-job training, 5, 78, 81 school training for, 81, 83-84 training pathways, 5-6, 77-78 worker supply and demand, 50-51, 105 workforce diversity, 4 workforce projections, 102 See also Aviation maintenance technicians; Mechanics Technological developments, 23 airway science program training for, 107-108 basic academic competencies for, 128-129 comparative adaptability of training pathways, 97

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--> implications for training, 106 implications for workforce, 51 job titles and, 125 need for human factors research, 145 Transitional training, 80, 104, 141-142 Trunk carriers, 20-21, 22 W Wages. See Compensation for aviation workers Watres Act, 19 Women in aviation industry, 1, 3-4, 15, 44, 46-47, 115, 116, 117, 118 in collegiate aviation programs, 87-88 math and science education, 135-139 in military, 4, 53-54, 63-69, 116 See also Diversity of workforce