Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing

Panel on Database Needs in Plasma Processing

Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences

and

Plasma Science Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1996



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--> Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing Panel on Database Needs in Plasma Processing Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences and Plasma Science Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1996

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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Office of Naval Research under contract number N00014-89-J-1728. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Cover: A plasma-etched gate 0.12 microns wide, patterned with x-ray lithography. (Courtesy of G. Rittenhouse, J.T.C. Lee, and A. Kornblit, Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories.) Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 96-70732 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05591-1 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 1-800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America

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--> PANEL ON DATABASE NEEDS IN PLASMA PROCESSING DAVID B. GRAVES, University of California, Berkeley, Co-Chair MARK J. KUSHNER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Co-Chair JEAN W. GALLAGHER, National Institute of Standards and Technology ALAN GARSCADDEN, Wright Laboratory GOTTLIEB S. OEHRLEIN, State University of New York at Albany ARTHUR V. PHELPS, University of Colorado, JILA Agency Liaisons BERTRAM HUI, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency CHARLES ROBERSON, Office of Naval Research DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer

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--> COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL SCIENCES WILLIAM STWALLEY, University of Connecticut, Chair WENDELL T. HILL III, University of Maryland, Vice Chair ROBERT W. FIELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DANIEL GRISCHKOWSKY, Oklahoma State University TONY F. HEINZ, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center PAUL S. JULIENNE, National Institute of Standards and Technology H. JEFFREY KIMBLE, California Institute of Technology SIU AU LEE, Colorado State University C. WILLIAM McCURDY, JR., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MARA G. PRENTISS, Harvard University DAVID J. WINELAND, National Institute of Standards and Technology PLASMA SCIENCE COMMITTEE RAVI SUDAN, Cornell University, Chair CHUAN S. LIU, University of Maryland, Vice Chair STEVEN C. COWLEY, University of California, Los Angeles VINCENT DONNELLY, AT&T Bell Laboratories ROY GOULD, California Institute of Technology RICHARD D. HAZELTINE, University of Texas at Austin WILLIAM L. KRUER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MICHAEL LIEBERMAN, University of California, Berkeley GERALD L. ROGOFF, OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. NATHAN RYNN, University of California, Irvine ELLEN ZWEIBEL, University of Colorado

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--> BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DAVID N. SCHRAMM, University of Chicago, Chair ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California at San Diego, Vice Chair LLOYD ARMSTRONG, JR., University of Southern California DAVID H. AUSTON, Rice University IRA BERNSTEIN, Yale University PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center SANDRA M. FABER, University of California at Santa Cruz HANS FRAUENFELDER, Los Alamos National Laboratory JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARGARET J. GELLER, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University AL NARATH, Sandia National Laboratories JOSEPH M. PROUD, GTE Corporation (retired) ANTHONY C.S. READHEAD, California Institute of Technology ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University JOHANNA STACHEL, State University of New York at Stony Brook DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate CHRISTOPHER HANNA, Project Assistant

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--> COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER University of Colorado, Co-Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, Council on Foreign Relations KENNETH I. KELLERMAN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory KEN KENNEDY, Rice University DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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--> Preface In the spring of 1994 the Plasma Science Committee and the Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences of the National Research Council (NRC) established a panel to organize and conduct a workshop on database needs in plasma processing of materials. This activity was motivated by the NRC report Plasma Processing of Materials: Scientific Opportunities and Technological Challenges (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991), prepared by the Panel on Plasma Processing and Materials under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, which pointed out the need for an improved database to enable more quantitative modeling of plasma reactors and processes, especially in the area of integrated circuit manufacturing. The beneficial product of such modeling would be a more competitive and responsive microelectronics industry that serves both defense and civilian markets. The primary purpose of the workshop, held April 1 and 2, 1995, in Washington, D.C., was to bring together experts with the goal of developing a prioritized list of database and diagnostic needs based on their potential impact on plasma processing technology. This report summarizes the findings of the workshop. Each of the members of the Panel on Database Needs in Plasma Processing headed an ad hoc group that helped draft a subset of the report, based on input from the workshop participants. The panel thanks the members of these groups for their assistance: P.B. Armentrout, University of Utah; E. Aydil, University of California, Santa Barbara; K.H. Becker, The City College of the City University of New York; R. Buss, Sandia National Laboratories; M.W. Chase, National Institute of Standards and Technology; L.G. Christophorou, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; J.M. Cook, Lain Research Corporation; D. Ernie, University of Minnesota; K.P. Giapis, California Institute of Technology; M.F. Golde, University of Pittsburgh; I.P. Herman, Columbia University; P. Ho, Sandia National Laboratories; R. Johnsen, University of Pittsburgh; Y.-K. Kim, National Institute of Standards and Technology; H. Sawin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; D.W. Setser, Kansas State University; S. Srivastava, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; W. Tsang, National Institute of Standards and Technology; R.J. Van Brunt, National Institute of Standards and Technology; C. Woods, University of Wisconsin; J. Wormhoudt, Aerodyne Research Inc.; and M. Zachariah, National Institute of Standards and Technology. In view of the fact that the primary use of data on plasma processing is in technology development in industry, special efforts were made to ensure that there was extensive industrial participation in the workshop, both in breadth and depth. The panel owes a particular debt of gratitude to the following individuals for their active participation in the workshop and for critiquing and improving drafts of the report: Kaihan A. Ashtiani of Materials Research Corporation; Andrew D. Bailey HI of Plasma and Materials Technologies; Joel M. Cook of Lam Research Corporation; Frederick Dill of IBM T.J. Watson Research Center; Vincent Donnelly of Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories; Erik Egan of Motorola; Sychi Fang of Intel Corporation; David Fraser of Intel Corporation; Abe Ghanbari of Materials Research Corporation; R.A. Gottscho of Lain Research Corporation (formerly of AT&T Bell Laboratories); Michael Hartig of Motorola/Sematech; Les Jerde of Tegal Corporation; Andrew Labun of Digital Equipment Corporation; Michael Mocella of Dupont; Joseph Proud of GTE; Vivek Singh of Intel Corporation; Vikram Singh of Lam Research Corporation; M. Surendra of IBM T.J. Watson Research Center; Alexander Voschenkov of Lain Research Corporation; and Jody Wormhoudt of Aerodyne Research. The scope of this report is substantial, covering industrial needs for better plasma process engineering, the current state of the art in plasma modeling, and the various supporting databases and diagnostics techniques that underlie and complement modeling and simulation. The report is intended for a variety of audiences: academic and government laboratory researchers, industrial engineers and scientists, and technical program managers at federal agencies. Although it emphasizes industrial and technological applications, the report raises many challenging questions involving fundamental science that underlies the

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--> technological applications, and these challenges should appeal to many in the basic science community as well as to technologists. The fundamental science disciplines to which this report is most relevant include, but are not limited to, plasma science and atomic, molecular, and optical science. The panel notes that this report has been preceded by several excellent reports that address similar and/or complementary issues from somewhat different perspectives. The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), for example, prepares periodic "roadmaps" of industrial needs and potential solutions to guide technology development in critical areas of semiconductor manufacturing. SIA's second such report (The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1994) contains numerous insights regarding the role of future plasma processing in semiconductor manufacturing. In 1995 SEMATECH published an important supplement to the SIA roadmap; titled Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) Roadmap: Supplement to the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, it contains a chapter on equipment modeling, including plasma equipment modeling and the database needs for this application. In 1994 SEMATECH published White Paper for a Chemical Kinetics Database to Support Integrated Circuit Manufacture, a report that focuses primarily on modeling and simulation for thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes and that contains much useful information and valuable insight on the proper approach to developing an equipment modeling database. As noted above, plasma processing was specifically addressed in the 1991 NRC report Plasma Processing of Materials, which provided the primary motivation for the present activity. In 1995, the NRC published in the Naval Research Laboratory Series a report titled Plasma Processing and Processing Science (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). Also published in 1995 was a comprehensive NRC report entitled Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.). All of these previously published reports contain useful, often additional, and sometimes conflicting information relevant to the goals of this report. Readers are advised to examine the earlier reports as well, to obtain historical perspective and a broader base of opinion.

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--> Contents Executive Summary   1     Findings   1     Conclusions   2     Recommendations   3     References   4 1 Industrial Perspectives   5     Introduction   5     Plasma Processing for Semiconductor Manufacturing   5     Plasma Equipment Supplier Perspectives   8     Chip Manufacturer Perspectives   9     Recommended Priorities for Development of an Improved Database   11     Findings   12     Conclusions   12     References   12 2 Tool Scale and Feature Scale Models   13     Introduction   13     Tool Scale Models   13     Capabilities Needed for Tool Scale Models   15     Barriers to Using Tool Scale Models   15     Feature Scale Models   16     General Assessment of Modeling State of the Art and Vision of Future Capability and Implied Needs   17     Findings   21     Conclusions   21     References   21 3 Radiative Processes and Diagnostics   23     Introduction   23     Techniques for Measurements of Gas Phase Species   23     Information Resources   24     Roles of the Database in Motivating Diagnostic Experiments   25     Surface Reaction Database and Diagnostics   26     Information Resources   27     New Diagnostic Techniques   27     Findings   28     References   29 4 Heterogeneous Processes   33     Introduction   33     State of the Database   33     Techniques for Improving the Database   34     Approach   34     Measurements on Realistic Plasma Reactors   34     Incident Flux and Desorbing Flux Analysis   34

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-->     Condition of the Surface   35     Technology   36     Ultrahigh-Vacuum Approach Using Mass and Energy Selected Reactive Beams   36     Particle Beams   36     Sticking Coefficients   37     Synergistic Effects   37     Substrate Temperature Dependence   37     Angle Dependence   38     Computer Simulations   38     Findings   38     References   38 5 Electron Collision Processes   41     Introduction   41     Ionization   41     Atoms   41     Molecules   41     Theoretical Methods and Advances   42     Neutral Dissociation   42     Electron-Impact Excitation   43     Attachment   43     Momentum Transfer, Swarm, and Discharge Measurements   43     General Comments   44     Findings   45     References   45 6 Ion Processes, Neutral Chemistry, and Thermochemical Data   47     Introduction   47     Cross Sections and Rate Coefficients   48     Ion Processes   48     Momentum Transfer   48     Ion-Molecule and Charge Exchange Reactions   48     Ion-Ion Neutralization   50     Electron-Ion Recombination   51     Ion-Neutral and Neutral-Neutral Excitation   51     Neutral Chemistry   51     Status of the Database   52     Excited State Chemistry and Penning Ionization   53     Summary   54     Ion Processes   55     Neutral Chemistry   55     Thermochemical Data   55     Findings   57     References   57 Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations   59 Appendix B: Workshop Agenda   61 Appendix C: Workshop Participants   63