Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants

Volume 3

SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1996



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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 3 SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C., 1996

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS  2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NAGW-2239. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 95-73151  International Standard Book No. 0-309-05629-2 Additional copies of this report are available from  National Academy Press  2101 Constitution Ave., N.W.  Box 285  Washington, D.C. 20055  800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area)  http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations DONALD E. GARDNER (Chair), Consultant, Raleigh, N.C. JOSEPH V. BRADY, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. RICHARD J. BULL, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. MARY E. GAULDEN, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex. WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio ROGENE F. HENDERSON, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. E. MARSHALL JOHNSON, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. RALPH L. KODELL, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Ark. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BERNARD M. WAGNER, Bernard M. Wagner Associates, Millburn, N.J. G. DONALD WHEDON, Consultant, Clearwater Beach, Fla. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff MARGARET E. MCVEY, Project Director RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor LINDA V. LEONARD, Administrative Associate CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant Sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 This page in the original is blank.

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Committee on Toxicology ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, N.Mex. DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice-Chair), Raleigh, N.C. GERMAINE M. BUCK, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, N.Y. DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. KEVIN E. DRISCOLL, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio ELAINE M. FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Ark. IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. SIDNEY GREEN, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Md. LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. GEORGE B. KOELLE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. DANIEL KREWSKI, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont. THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, N.C. JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, N.J. BERNARD M. WAGNER, Wagner Associates, Inc., Millburn, N.J. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn. HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, Calif. GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Staff of the Committee on Toxicology KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director MARVIN A. SCHNEIDERMAN, Senior Staff Scientist MARGARET E. MCVEY, Staff Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, N.Y. EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Va. ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. GEORGE P. DASTON, The Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio PETER L. DEFUR, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va. DAVID L. EATON, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colo. ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. DANIEL KREWSKI, Health & Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario RAYMOND C. LOEHR, The University of Texas, Austin, Tex. WARREN MUIR, Hampshire Research Institute, Alexandria, Va. GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, S.C. BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C.

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Staff Program Directors of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Commission on Life Sciences THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Salk Institute, La Jolla, Calif. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, Calif. GLENN A. CROSBY, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass. RICHARD E. LENSKI, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, Mass. EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, Calif. EMIL A. PFITZER, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Hackensack, N.J. MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. HAROLD M. SCHMECK, JR., North Chatham, Mass. CARLA J. SHATZ, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex. PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Other Recent Reports of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring Synthetic and Natural Substances (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (Urinary Toxicology (1995), Immunotoxicology (1992), Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992), Pulmonary Toxicology (1989), Reproductive Toxicology (1989)) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three reports, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Ranking Hazardous Sites for Remedial Action (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Issues in Risk Assessment (1993) Setting Priorities for Land Conservation (1993) Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Environmental Neurotoxicology (1992) Hazardous Materials on the Public Lands (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards (1991) Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I-IV (1991-1993) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Monitoring Human Tissues for Toxic Substances (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Tracking Toxic Substances at Industrial Facilities (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Other Recent Reports of the Committee on Toxicology Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996) Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994) and Volume 2 (1996) Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water (1995) Guidelines for Chemical Warfare Agents in Military Field Drinking Water (1995) Review of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute's Toxicology Program (1994) Health Effects of Permethrin-Impregnated Army Battle-Dress Uniforms (1994) Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (1993) Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (1993) Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (1992) Review of the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Toxicology Division (1991) Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (1991)

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Preface The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMACs as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 The subcommittee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the following personnel from NASA and its contractors: Dr. John James, Dr. Martin Coleman, Mr. Jay Perry, Mr. Kenneth Mitchell (all from NASA), Dr. King Lit Wong (U.S Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office), Dr. Hector Garcia, and Dr. Chiu Wing Lam (both from Krug International). The subcommittee is grateful to astronaut Dr. Mary Cleave for sharing her experiences. The subcommittee also acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, for providing a tour of their facilities. Linda Leonard was the senior project assistant. Ruth Crossgrove edited the report. The subcommittee particularly acknowledges Dr. Kulbir Bakshi, program director for the Committee on Toxicology, and Dr. Margaret McVey, project director for the subcommittee, for bringing the report to completion. Donald E. Gardner, Chair Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations Rogene F. Henderson, Chair Committee on Toxicology

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 Contents     SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SELECTED AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS: INTRODUCTION   1     Summary of Report on Guidelines for Developing SMACS   3     Review of SMAC Reports   4     References   6 APPENDIX A   GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SPACE STATION CONTAMINANTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   9 APPENDIX B   REPORTS ON SPACECRAFT MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS FOR SELECTED AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS   19     B1 Bromotrifluoromethane   21     B2 1-Butanol   53     B3 tert-Butanol   78     B4 Diacetone alcohol   105     B5 Dichloroacetylene   117     B6 1, 2-Dichloroethane   135     B7 Ethanol   171     B8 Ethylbenzene   208     B9 Ethylene glycol   232     B10 Glutaraldehyde   271     B11 Trichloroethylene   292     B12 Xylene   321

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Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 SPACECRAFTMAXIMUMALLOWABLECONCENTRATIONSFORSELECTEDAIRBORNECONTAMINANTS

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