Index

A

Active matrix electro luminescent display, 66

Alertness monitoring, 154

Alphanumeric presentations, 157, 163

Amblyopia, 91-92

Anthropometric design, 37-38

Apache helicopter pilots, 93

Armed Forces Qualification Test, 27, 28-29

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, 27, 28

Army Reserve, 10

Attention allocation, 47-48

arousal-related measures of capacity, 146

for auditory processing, 124

capacity models, 145-146

cue utilization, 136, 157

design principles, 160-161

dual-task performance, 145-147, 153, 154

filter model, 145

goal-directed, 49

incipient performance failure, 143

limits of attentional capacity, 145

measures for assessment of, 149

multiple resource model, 146-148

physiological measures of, 153-154

predictive modeling, 155-156

primary task measures, 152

secondary task measures, 146, 152-153, 154

subjective measures, 149, 150-152

working memory model, 148-149

Auditory displays

ambient conditions, 1 17, 127

controls, 126

head trackers for, 125

headphone/speaker design, 117-118, 124-125, 128

indications for, 117, 122, 128

Land Warrior System conceptualization, 117-118

message storage, 122

research needs, 128-129, 187

selection of presentation format, 122

sound detectability thresholds, 118-119, 122-124

speech recognition systems, 126-128, 129

speech signals, 120-122

three-dimensional, 122-126

tonal range for signals, 119-120

Automation, situation awareness and, 52

Aviation operations/technology

display systems, 67, 69

generalizability of research, 156, 184-185

monocular vs. binocular display, 93

pilot situation awareness, 49-50 221



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OCR for page 221
--> Index A Active matrix electro luminescent display, 66 Alertness monitoring, 154 Alphanumeric presentations, 157, 163 Amblyopia, 91-92 Anthropometric design, 37-38 Apache helicopter pilots, 93 Armed Forces Qualification Test, 27, 28-29 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, 27, 28 Army Reserve, 10 Attention allocation, 47-48 arousal-related measures of capacity, 146 for auditory processing, 124 capacity models, 145-146 cue utilization, 136, 157 design principles, 160-161 dual-task performance, 145-147, 153, 154 filter model, 145 goal-directed, 49 incipient performance failure, 143 limits of attentional capacity, 145 measures for assessment of, 149 multiple resource model, 146-148 physiological measures of, 153-154 predictive modeling, 155-156 primary task measures, 152 secondary task measures, 146, 152-153, 154 subjective measures, 149, 150-152 working memory model, 148-149 Auditory displays ambient conditions, 1 17, 127 controls, 126 head trackers for, 125 headphone/speaker design, 117-118, 124-125, 128 indications for, 117, 122, 128 Land Warrior System conceptualization, 117-118 message storage, 122 research needs, 128-129, 187 selection of presentation format, 122 sound detectability thresholds, 118-119, 122-124 speech recognition systems, 126-128, 129 speech signals, 120-122 three-dimensional, 122-126 tonal range for signals, 119-120 Automation, situation awareness and, 52 Aviation operations/technology display systems, 67, 69 generalizability of research, 156, 184-185 monocular vs. binocular display, 93 pilot situation awareness, 49-50 221

OCR for page 221
--> B Binocular display, 87 advantages/disadvantages, 93-94 depth perception, 92-93, 97, 102, 103 design considerations, 90 recommendations, 4. 6, 113, 184-185 visual rivalry effects, 91, 113 Biocular display, 90 Buddy system, 21 C Camouflage, visual detection of, 92, 98 Circadian rhythms. 140-141 Cognitive functioning acceptance of technology, 39-40 alertness monitoring, 154 capacity to use Land Warrior System, 36-37, 40-42 combat conditions, 6, 17-21 confidence and fear in combat, 8, 21 current personnel selection criteria, 28-30 for defensive operations, 17 group operations, 17-22 heat stress, 136-137 information sampling, 52-53 limits of human information processing, 145 measurement methodology, 166 object recognition, 111 overload/underload stress, 133-134, 145 physical performance and, 144, 171 research needs, 42, 156-157, 162, 170 stress-effects model, 131 in stressful environments, 52-53 training for Land Warrior System, 33 workload assessment, 144-145, 149-150 See also Attention allocation See also Decision making processes; Information management; Situation awareness Cold environments, 137 Collimation, 93, 97, 101 Combat operations attack activities, 12, 13, 17 cognitive processing, 6, 17-21 command and control operations, 22-24 communications system for, 21-22 confusion in battle, 157-158 critical battle tasks, 12 defense activities, 12, 17 depth perception tasks, 107-108 determinants of, 12 extended duration, 140-141 flexible response, 9 future prospects, 8-10 individual soldier's self-confidence in, 8, 21 information presentation in, 158 low-intensity conflict, 8 Land Warrior System design for, 12-17 noise-related stress, 138-140 operational environments, 3, 7, 11-12 rifle stabilization, 5-6, 186 situation awareness, 44-45, 52-53 sources of stress, 133-142 system performance criteria, 7-8, 11-12 workload stress, 133-134 Communications systems ambient noise problems, 138-140 auditory augmentation, 125-126 chain of command information flow, 11, 158 in combat environment, 21-22 for defensive operations, 17 limits of human attentional capacity, 145 multiple resource model of cognitive processing, 146-148 overload, 134 photographic reporting, 40 process indices for analysis of, 57 significance of trust in, 134-135 as strategic target, 134 team situation awareness, 53-54 verbal, 57 Complex systems capacity model of human attention, 145-146 situation awareness in, 51-52 transmission of information in, 158 Complexity study, 30 Cooper-Harper scale, 150, 151 Cost considerations, embedded training, 35 Cue narrowing, 136, 157 D Data entry design considerations, 37-38 vs. speech recognition, 126 Decision making processes chain of command information flow, 11, 158

OCR for page 221
--> in combat settings, 9 elements of, 23 heat stress effects, 137 implications of individual tactical information systems, 3, 10-11, 22-24 organizational functioning, 23 premature closure, 53 squad leadership, 23-24 during unit attack, 13 Defense operations critical tasks, 12 Land Warrior System design, 17 Dependence on technology, 39 Depth perception, 90 augmented task performance relative to action zones, 99-108, 113 binocular/monocular vision, 92, 102, 103 collimation effects, 101 cues, 96-98 display resolution effects, 105-108 effects of helmet-mounted displays, 108- 110 limitations of visual displays, 93 stereopsis, 92-93, 97, 108-109 target size and shape in, 95, 101-102, 104, 109-110 textural gradient effects, 109 use of two-dimensional displays, 95-97, 109 Design and development attentional principles, 160-161 challenges, 2-3, 40-41, 67-68 cognitive workload measures for, 152 cost-benefit analysis, 69 critical human factors issues, 169 cross-cutting issues, 171 ergonomics, 25, 67, 156-157, 187 experimental approach, 5-6, 185-186 field tests, 56-57 human performance measures, 166-167, 181 implications of combat operations, 13 implications of threat changes, 9 individualization vs. standardization, 37-38 information-processing/decision making considerations, 24, 149 mental model principles, 48-49, 160 operational testing, 171-172 perceptual principles, 160, 162-163 proximity compatibility, 160-162 recommendations for design guidelines, 6, 187-188 situation awareness considerations, 4-5, 43, 55-56, 63-64, 169-170 training considerations, 35-36 user perspective, 37-38, 159-160, 164, 165-166, 167, 168-169 visual display issues, 65-66, 88, 112-113 See also Evaluation and testing of Land Warrior System Dual-task performance, 145-147, 153 predictive modeling, 155-156 E Educational requirements, 29 Egocentric displays, 49 Electrocardiography, 154-155 Electroencephalography, 153-154 Embedded training system, 35, 41 Enlistment trends, 29-30 Ergonomic design, 25, 67, 69, 113, 135, 171. 187 Evaluation and testing of Land Warrior System command and control issues, 22 conceptual approach, 3-4, 164-165, 173 field testing, 56-57, 165-166 human performance assessment, 166-167, 168, 172-173 human performance factors, 169-171 measurement of situation awareness effects, 54-62 measures of effectiveness, 173-175 performance criteria, 7-8, 11-17, 164, 167 performance-shaping factors, 172-173 physical exertion effects, 156-157 recommendations, 4-6, 185-187 settings for, 4, 25-26 simulation techniques, 167-168 strategic plan, 167-168 stress effects, 142 subsystem performance requirements, 173 user acceptance as element of, 142 visual display performance, 98-100 weapons operations, 5-6 Event-related potentials, 153-154 Executive process-interactive control model, 155-156 Expectations influence on situation awareness, 47 of technology, 39 Eyeblink frequency, 154 Eyeglasses, 32

OCR for page 221
--> F Fatigue definition, 142-143 as stress outcome, 142-143 Field of view, 89, 92-93, 94, 103-104 effects of helmet-mounted displays, 110-111 image resolution and, 106 limits of object recognition, 111 Field testing, 56-57 binocular/monocular displays, 93-94 for evaluation of helmet-mounted displays, 165-166, 171-172 for visual displays, 90 Force XXI, 7, 9, 25 G Geon theory, 107-108 Global positioning system, 54, 66 H Hand-held/wrist-mounted display, 5, 63, 68, 185 Head dimensions, 38 Head motion, 87 depth perception and, 102, 103, 108, 112 field of view enhancement, 110-111 research needs, 6, 186 Headphone/speaker design, 117-118, 124-125, 128 Heat stress, 136-137 Helmet-mounted display advantages/disadvantages, 66-67, 68-87 attention allocation, 47-48, 157 aviation applications, 67 compatible with mental models, 48-49, 160 decision making authority and, 3, 10-11, 22-24 depth perception, 95-98 display alternatives, 63, 185 effects on depth perception, 108-110 effects on field of view, 110- 111 ergonomic considerations, 69, 113 heat stress related to, 137 individualized vs. standardized design, 37- 38 limits of soldier's working memory, 48 motion sickness risk, 86, 87 operational environments, 3, 7 operational goals, 1-2, 66 perceptual trade-offs, 47 potential limitations, 4, 13-17, 23-24, 67-68 real-time simulations, 55-56 research and evaluation issues, 3-4, 24-26 situation awareness and, 45, 54-57, 62-64, 68-69, 169-170 soldier acceptance, 39-40 squad performance and, 17, 21 training issues, 34-35, 63, 159 virtual environment applications, 69-87 visual display, 65-66 visual presentation formats, 95-97 Human factors cognitive testing, 28-30 critical research questions for design, 169 in design and development, 164, 167, 172 evaluation guidelines, 166-167 measures of effectiveness, 173-175 obstacles to performance evaluation, 168 significance of, 25 in speech recognition systems, 128 I Image intensifier, 102, 105 Individual differences, 13, 37-38, 41 research needs, 186 situation awareness, 45-48, 49-50 in use of helmet-mounted displays, 159 workload response, 156 Infantry soldier attitudes toward Land Warrior System prototype, 39 capacity to use Land Warrior System, 36-37, 41-42, 51-52 challenges for helmet-mounted display design, 67-68 cognitive screening, 28-30 combat environments, 11-12 combat performance criteria, 11 confidence in technology, 8, 21, 39 critical battle tasks, 12 decision making autonomy, 10-11 future role of, 8-10 information overload/underload, 133-134 Land Warrior System users, 38 physical requirements, 30-32 training and readiness, 10 vision requirements, 32, 91

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--> Information content/processing chain of command issues in, II, 158 in combat, 21-22 in complex systems, 158 disinformation effects, 134-135 egocentric presentation, 49 elements of situation awareness, 44-45 goal-directed, 49 implications of tactical information systems, 24 individual autonomy, 10-11 information processing ability of Land Warrior System users, 41-42, 51-52 limits of human information processing, 145 limits of working memory, 48 Land Warrior System goals, 1, 10 needs during unit attack, 13 overload/underload stress, 133-134 team effort, 53-54 visual display design, 22, 94 visual processing, 88 See also Cognitive functioning; Situation awareness Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System, 67 L Land Warrior System auditory display, 117-118 battle task components, 12-17 cognitive requirements, 30, 36-37, 41-42 critical issues, 25-26 implications for training, 33-35, 41-42 information load distribution, 134 operational concept, 1, 10, 112 operational tasks, 12-17 potential users, 38 rationale, 2 significance of human factors issues, 25 as source of stress for user, 130, 132, 135 stress assessment in, 132 visual display, 1-2, 10, 86 See also Evaluation and testing of Land Warrior System; Helmet-mounted display Location identification, 2 in combat operations, 13 elements of, 44-45 Land Warrior System operation goals, 66 M Memory attention allocation processes, 145 response bottleneck in dual-task performance, 147-148 situation awareness and, 47. 48-49 stress effects, 53 use of mental models, 45-47, 48-49 working memory models of cognitive capacity, 148-149 Military occupational specialties, 36, 37 Model human processor, 155 Monocular display depth perception, 102 design considerations, 90 field tests, 93-94 long-term use, 113 recommendations, 4, 6, 113, 184-185, 187 stereopsis effects, 92, 108 Motion sickness, 86, 87 N NASA task load index, 151 National Guard, 10 Night vision binocular rivalry effects, 91 functions of helmet-mounted display, 66, 86 interpretation and perception, 88 monocular vs. binocular viewing, 92 recommendations for research, 6 technological advances, 2 visual display, 2 Noise stress, 138-140 vibration, 140 O Object recognition, 11 cognitive functioning for, 111 display fidelity, 88 as element of situation awareness, 44 narrowed focus of attention and, 68-69 predictive modeling, 98 priming effects, III ORD, 37 Organizational structure of tactical forces for combat operations, 21 critical battle tasks, 12 decision making processes, 23

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--> future prospects, 9-10 threat assessment and, 9 P Packet switching, In. Performance-shaping factors, 172-173 Personnel selection and training acceptance of technology and, 39 adaptive response to stress, 144 age demographics, 29-30 challenges for Land Warrior System performance design. 40-41 cognitive entry requirements, 28-30 cost considerations, 35 current practice, 27 educational requirements, 29 embedded training system, 35, 41 enlistment trends, 29 future prospects, 10 goals of training, 32-33 human performance taxonomy, 30 implications of helmet-mounted display, 63, 159 implications of Land Warrior System, 33-35, 36-37, 41 Land Warrior System operational requirements, 36, 37 mental workload performance and, 156 operational goals, 21 physical requirements, 30-32 research needs, 5, 35-36, 170 significant issues. 26. 41-42 situation awareness screening, 49-50 visual display interpretation, training for, 102, 103-104, 112 Physical ability infantry requirements, 30-32 mobility affected by equipment, 13, 69 psychological effects of discomfort, 40, 135 Physical stress adaptive response, 144 considerations in Land Warrior System design, 25, 113, 135 in defensive operations, 17 design implications, 156-157 measures of cognitive workload, 153-154 research needs, 6, 187 See also Stress Platoon leader critical battle tasks, 12 identification of incipient stress failure in soldiers by, 132, 143-144 measures of effectiveness, 175 Proximity compatibility, 160-162 Pupil diameter, 146, 149 R Range finders, 95 Reconnaissance activities, 12 Redundancy gain, 160 Resolution of display depth perception and, 105-108 field of view and, 106 measurement units, 114-116 trade-offs within image, 105-106 visual, 89-90 Rifle stabilization, 5-6, 186 S Shivering, as cold response, 137 Situation awareness attention allocation. 47-48 auditory augmentation, 125 behavioral measures of, 61-62 critical combat tasks, 44 definition, 44 design implications, 4-5, 6, 169-170 elements of, 43 global context, 44, 62 goal-directed, 49 implications of/for helmet-mounted display. 45, 62-63, 68-69, 185 individual factors, 45-48, 49-50 information-processing model, 45 local context, 44-45, 63 measurement techniques, 43-44, 54-57 opportunities for technological improvement, 54, 63-64 performance measures of, 62 process indices. 57 questionnaires for assessment of, 60-61 real-time testing, 60 significance of, 43 stresses of combat environment and, 52-53 subjective measures, 59-60 task automation and, 52 task complexity and, 51-52 team efforts, 53-54 technology trade-offs, 45

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--> temporal context, 44 use of mental models, 45-47, 48-49 working memory and, 48, 53 workload factors, 50-51 Situation awareness global assessment technique, 61 Situation awareness rating technique, 59 Snellen fraction, 114 Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE), 68 Special forces sergeant, 32 Speech advantages of, in auditory displays, 120 intelligibility, 121, 124 presentation formats for auditory displays, 120-121 recognition systems, 126-128, 129 syllabic length, 121 synthetic, 121 for warning signals, 121-122 Squad functioning decision making processes, 22-24 Land Warrior System support for, 17 potential negative effects of Land Warrior System, 67-68 Squad leadership critical battle tasks, 12 identification of incipient stress failure in soldiers by, 132, 143-144 implications of tactical information systems, 22, 23-24, 40 measures of effectiveness, 173-175 training for Land Warrior System, 23, 34 Standardized testing, 27 cognitive workload assessment, 150-152 situation awareness assessment, 59-60 Stereopsis, 92-93, 97, 108-109 Stress adaptive responses, 144, 157-159 battlefield, 157-158 of cold environments, 137 coping strategies, 131-132 design consideration, 162-163 dual-task performance, 145-146 extended field operations, 140-141 fatigue effects, 142-143 heat tolerance, 137 of hot environments, 136-137 identification of incipient failure from, 132, 143-144 information disinformation effects, 134-135 information overload/underload, 133-134, 145 interactive effects, 141-142, 171 limits of predictive modeling, 132 noise effects, 138-140 in operational environment, 135-136 organizational support strategies, 132 perceived control and, 157-158 predictive modeling, 130-131 research needs, 132, 162 research needs for systems design, 171 as restricted cue utilization, 136 situation awareness affected by, 52-53 task requirements as source of, 133 tolerance, 132 See also Physical stress Subjective workload assessment technique (SWAT), 151 Subjective workload dominance assessment, 59 Surveillance activities, 145 Symbology, 67, 113 T TACFIRE, 39 Thermal imaging, 66 binocular display, 93 interpretation and perception, 88 training for use of, 113 TOW missile system, 88 Training. See Personnel selection and training U User perspective acceptance of technology, 39-40, 142 design considerations, 37-38, 159-160, 164, 165-166, 167, 168-169 perceived control of situation, 157-158 potential Land Warrior System users, 38 V Vibration effects as stress source, 140 visual display, 6 Video games, 159 Viewpoint offset, 103-104 Virtual environments, 69-87

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--> Visual acuity/performance accommodation, 93, 97, 101 ambient and focal systems, 110-111 amblyopia, 91-92 angular threshold, 115 cue narrowing. 136, 157 eyeblink frequency as workload indicator, 154 fatigue, 143 measurement units, 114-116 normal performance, 90 probability summation, 92 pupil diameter as arousal indicator, 146, 149 requirements for infantry soldiers, 32, 91 research needs, 186 response bottleneck in dual-task performance, 147-148 stereopsis, 92-93, 97. 108 working memory model, 149 See also Depth perception Visual display alphanumeric presentations, 157, 163 aperture problem, 103-104 binocular rivalry effects, 91, 113 binocular vs. monocular, 90 coherence, 90 contrast, 89-90 depth perception by zones of action, 99-105, 113 design issues, 2-3, 22, 65-66 egocentric, 49 fidelity needs, 88 field of view, 5, 89, 92-93, 94 92-93, 94 field research, 93-94 graphic representation, 157, 162-163 gun sight, 103 hardware, 66 head motion correlation, 87, 186 Land Warrior System operational concept, 1-2, 10 off-center presentation, 68, 113, 163 perceptual principles for design, 160, 162- 163 perceptual principles for systems design, 160, 162-163 performance evaluation, 98-100. 170 physical stress engendered by, 69 potential negative effects, 13-17, 67-68 processing proximity, 160-162 proposed helmet-mounted system, 65, 86 recommendations for research and design, 4-5, 6, 112-113, 184-185, 187-188 research needs, 171 resolution, 89-90 resolution effects on depth perception, 105-108 sensory factors in design of, 88 symbology, 67 threshold values, 5 training for use of, 102, 103-104, 112 two-dimensional presentation, 95-97, 109 vibration effects, 6 viewpoint offset, 103-104 W Warning signals auditory, 119-120 redundancy, 163 spoken, 121-121 Weapons operations, rifle stabilization, 5-6, 186 Workload capacity models of cognitive process, 145-146 cognitive, assessment of, 144-145, 149-150 cognitive, design considerations for, 160-162, 162-163 cognitive, physiological measures of, 153- 154 definition, 144 as determinant of situation awareness, 50- 51 determinants of, 150-151 extended operations, 140-141 information overload, 22, 23 interpreting photographic reports, 40 limits of working memory, 48 Land Warrior System effects, 23, 40 multiple resource model of cognitive process, 146-148 primary and secondary task measures, 152-153, 154 research needs, 156-157, 162, 170 squad leader management of, 34 subjective assessment, 59, 149, 150-152 technology drivers of, 40 underload effects, 51, 133-134, 145