• If Ada is superior in some areas, is a policy requiring its use appropriate? This issue and a number of other policy alternatives are discussed in Chapter 3.
  • For whatever policy requirements are appropriate, can DOD establish a workable set of criteria and processes for recognizing exceptions? These issues are discussed in Chapter 4 and are addressed in committee-suggested modifications of a May 1996 DOD draft software management policy presented in Appendix A.
  • What specific investment strategies are needed to keep Ada strong? This issue is discussed in Chapter 5.


  • 1.  

    The cost to DOD of developing Ada 95 has been estimated by the Ada 95 program manager, Christine Anderson, as being in the range of $29 million to $35 million (personal communication, July 5, 1996). Ada 83 investments were likely much greater but are difficult to quantify.

  • 2.  

    For descriptions of non-DOD projects using Ada, particularly in aerospace, transportation, and telecommunications, see "Ada Success Stories," maintained by the Ada Information Clearinghouse, located on the World Wide Web at http://sw-eng.falls-church.va.us/AdaIC/usage.

  • 3.  

    If all programming activities are included (i.e., application-oriented programming by other professionals), the total number of programmers increases to 3.45 million, less than 3 percent of which are Ada 83 programmers.

  • 4.  

    The newspapers were the April 21, 1996, edition of the Los Angeles Times and the March 24, 1996, edition of the Washington Post.

  • 5.  

    Other significant 3GLs were Cobol (11 percent) and Java (4 percent). Significant 4GLs were Visual Basic (13 percent), PowerBuilder (10 percent), and FoxPro and Visual C++ (4 percent each).

  • 6.  

    The industry groups surveyed were automobile services, financial services, medical devices, and industrial machinery.

  • 7.  

    Exceptions to this generalization include Cobol, which was never a popular language in academia but is used widely in business and defense applications, and Pascal, which was popular for many years in universities but not in industry.

  • 8.  

    "Foundation" is defined as one of the initial computing courses taken by students majoring in the field.

  • 9.  

    Bob Mathis, executive director, Ada Resource Association, personal communication, September 8, 1996.

  • 10.  

    The committee included representatives of two firms that sell Ada products: Rational and Intermetrics.

  • 11.  

    In a position paper to the committee, Victor Vyssotsky advocated stronger encouragement for programmers to learn numerous languages (Vyssotsky, 1996).

  • 12.  

    As detailed above, only one-third of the 3GL code written for weapon systems is in Ada. Because any software produced since the policy went into effect in 1987 (except for software not maintained or upgraded by DOD) would require a waiver, many more than a few waivers each year should have been approved for weapon systems alone. In addition, the use of Ada for automated information systems in DOD is even lower in relative and absolute terms.

  • 13.  

    Gerald Pasternack, Citibank, presentation to the committee, May 23, 1996, Washington, D.C.

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