oversight for the U.S. Government of the day-to-day operations of the center.

The ISTC's Governing Board, with representation from each of the four original parties, determines the ISTC's policies and procedures, provides general guidance, and approves projects for funding. The board is assisted by a coordination committee, which prepares recommendations for it and reviews policy and program issues on an ongoing basis. The secretariat, which consists of the executive director, three deputy executive directors, each representing one of the four original parties, and other key staff, is responsible for the daily administration of the ISTC. The Scientific Advisory Committee provides assessments of the technical merit of proposals submitted to the ISTC and advises it on scientific issues.

The United States exerts influence on ISTC policies and activities through its membership on the Governing Board and the Scientific Advisory Committee and through the secretariat's staff. The United States has held the executive directorship since the center was established, but the position will likely be filled by the European Union beginning in early 1997.

FUNDING OF THE ISTC

The original contribution by the United States to the ISTC was $25 million. An additional $24 million in fiscal year 1995 and $15 million in fiscal year 1996 brings the U.S. total to $64 million as of 1996. This amount includes $11 million for projects in Kazakstan, $5 million for projects in Belarus, and $1 million for projects in other former Soviet republics that are members of the ISTC (Armenia, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan). As of mid-1996, the European Union and Japan had contributed $53.5 million and $17 million, respectively. In 1995, Finland contributed $1.3 million and Sweden $4 million.

Each of the four founding parties also contributes staff, whose salaries and related expenses are paid for by the contributing country from non-ISTC designated funds. The United States has provided the executive director, the chief financial officer, two project managers, the chief accountant, and an adviser. In the United States, substantial additional in-kind support for ISTC activities is also provided by the national laboratories, which contribute employee time and effort to review proposals.

The first $49 million of U.S. funding for the ISTC came out of the Department of Defense's Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which has received a total of $1.5 billion since fiscal year 1991. The ISTC is now funded by the State Department from Freedom Support Act funds, which was funded at $850 million in fiscal year 1995 and $641 million in fiscal year 1996. This transfer of the ISTC from the Defense Department's budget to the State Department's budget did not result in any significant administrative changes since the State Department had administered the ISTC from the start, but it did result in additional congressional committees being involved in the authorization and appropriations process. This may have an effect on the ISTC's future funding, a topic the committee addresses in Chapter 4.

ISTC ACTIVITIES TO DATE

As of March 1996 the ISTC had funded 236 projects (including feasibility studies and second-stage funding to several projects), involving more than 12,000 FSU scientists in five countries. Approximately two-thirds of the scientific personnel funded by ISTC grants are from the nuclear weapons sector, and the largest number of grants has been awarded to the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Arzamas-16), the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics (Chelyabinsk-70), the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, and the Kurchatov Institute. Less than 10 percent of funds support scientists from the biological or chemical weapons sectors. In its 1995 annual report,13 the ISTC noted that, of the science and engineering experts participating in ISTC-funded projects, 63 percent had a background in nuclear weapons, 3 percent in chemical weapons, 4 percent in biological weapons, 16 percent in missile technology, and 14 percent in other areas.14 The appropriateness of this distribution is discussed in Chapter 4.

In addition, the ISTC has conducted several workshops and technical seminars that complement grants activities. The seminars are intended to stimulate the development of new proposals and increase collaboration among FSU scientists.

All of these activities are directed at the primary goal of diminishing the risk of weapons scientists and engineers emigrating from the FSU to rogue states and terrorist groups eager to acquire their knowledge and experience. Central to understanding and meeting this goal is an understanding of what is actually known about such emigration. The committee addresses this question in the next chapter before proceeding to its assessment of the ISTC's activities.

13  

The International Science and Technology Center: Second Annual Report;” January–December 1995, ISTC, Moscow, 1995, p. 6.

14  

While the ISTC's intent is to provide grants to weapons scientists and engineers, most projects necessarily include some nonweapons scientists and engineers.



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