WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization

Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAK60-95-C-2069 between the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command, Acquisition Directorate, and the National Academy of Sciences. Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 2852101 Constitution Ave., N.W.Washington, D.C.20055800-624-6242202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center JOSEPH F. SOUKUP (chair), Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia DONALD L. ZINK (vice chair), Nestle USA, Glendale, California BISHNU S. ATAL, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey HAROLD R. BOOHER, Senior Executive Service (retired), Baltimore, Maryland PHILIP EBERT, DuPont Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware CHRISTINE HAILEY, Utah State University, Logan DENNIS R. HELDMAN, University of Missouri, Columbia RICHARD M. HODGETTS, Florida International University, Miami FRANK K. KO, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania PARRY M. NORLING, DuPont Central Research & Development, Wilmington, Delaware ALAN B. PERKINS, MITRE Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama JANICE A. PHILLIPS, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison JOYCE L. SHIELDS, Hay Management Consultants, Arlington, Virginia Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director, Division of Military Science and Technology and Study Director E. VINCENT HOLAHAN, Study Director (to May, 1996) NORMAN M. HALLER, Consultant JACQUELINE A. CAMPBELL-JOHNSON, Senior Program Assistant Army Liaison ROBERT W. LEWIS, U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command, Natick, Massachusetts PHILIP BRANDLER, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts PETER F. DeCOSTA, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GENERAL GLENN K. OTIS (chair), U.S. Army (retired), Newport News, Virginia CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN (vice chair), General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison ALBERTO COLL, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, BDM Europe, Berlin, Germany GENERAL WILLIAM H. FORSTER, U.S. Army (retired), Northrop Grumman Corporation, Westinghouse Electronics Systems, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center (retired), Chicago, Illinois THOMAS McNAUGHER, Arroyo Center, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey KATHLEEN J. ROBERTSON, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, McLean, Virginia JAY P. SANFORD, University of Texas Southwestern Health Sciences Center at Dallas HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric Corporation, Schenectady, New York JOYCE L. SHIELDS, Hay Management Consultants, Arlington, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Venables & Associates, Towson, Maryland ALLEN C. WARD, Ward Synthesis, Ann Arbor, Michigan Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director ALVERA V. GIRCYS, Administrative Associate MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Associate JACQUELINE A. CAMPBELL-JOHNSON, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Preface This report is the first of a two-phase response to a request that the National Research Council (NRC) assess the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (RDEC). This report defines the characteristics of a world-class research, development, and engineering (RD&E) organization and the associated metrics, which will then be used to assess the RDEC. The results of that assessment will appear in a later report, which will complete the second phase of the NRC response. We are fortunate to have as members of this committee experts in the assessment of RD&E organizations as well as in the products and technologies at the Natick RDEC. The merits of this mix were evident in our exploration of the meaning of world-class performance, especially in a military organization. Given the captive nature of Army RD&E organizations, we first confronted the question of whether or not the characteristics and metrics for world-class performance were relevant. Unlike athletes who compete in the Olympics, it is difficult to compare military RD&E organizations with one another. Some military RD&E organizations are unique, or nearly so. Also, military secrecy is an obstacle to open competition. Ultimately, the outcome of a battle or a war may furnish a convenient, albeit imperfect, measure of the excellence of military RD&E. Despite these difficulties, we decided that characteristics and metrics for world-class performance of military RD&E organizations are relevant. We took the view that attributes associated with world-class civilian organizations—especially organizations with strong programs in research and development—can provide a valid guide for defining and characterizing world-class performance in organizations like Army RDECs.

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Our thinking about world-class performance was supported and broadened by the contributions of many experts from industry, academia, and government (see the appendix and reference sections). Their input was invaluable. After considering the various characteristics that can be used for assessing excellence, we recognized that a substantial degree of judgment is involved. For example, the number of characteristics and their level of specificity are matters of judgment. We have yet to find a standard that fits all situations. After becoming familiar with the large body of opinion on this subject, the final judgments concerning the characteristics and metrics used in this report were made solely by the committee. Joseph Soukup, chairman Standing Committee on Program and Technical Review of the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   9      Background,   9      Statement of Task,   10      Study Approach,   11      Road Map,   12      References,   12  2   GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF “WORLD-CLASS”   13      Use and Meaning of the Term World-Class,   13      Observations,   16      References,   19  3   WORLD-CLASS ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING   21      World-Class Defined for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization,   21      Components,   23      Pillars,   24      References,   29  4   CHARACTERISTICS AND METRICS FOR A WORLD-CLASS ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION   31      Characteristics,   31      Metrics,   34      References,   40     Tables 4-1 through 4-6,   41

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization  5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   67      Conclusions,   67      Recommendations,   68     APPENDIX: MEETINGS AND DISCUSSIONS   71

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization Tables and Figures TABLES  3-1   Important Features of the Five Pillars,   29  4-1   Metrics of the Customer Focus Pillar,   42  4-2   Metrics of the Resources and Capabilities Pillar,   44  4-3   Metrics of the Strategic Vision Pillar,   52  4-4   Metrics of the Value Creation Pillar,   56  4-5   Metrics of the Quality Focus Pillar,   60  4-6   Organizational Assessment,   66 FIGURES  2-1   Relationship of the Components of World-Class R&D Organizations,   19  4-1   Research, Development, and Engineering as a System,   36  4-2   Spider Diagram,   39

OCR for page R1
WORLD-CLASS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: Characteristics for an Army Research, Development, and Engineering Organization This page in the original is blank.