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Index Accretion disks, 57, 59, 62, 108, 153 Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO), 17, 19, 33, 63, 78, 134 Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), 15, 18, 19, 27, 31, 39, 44, 48, 50, 52, 53, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 82, 85, 133, 134-135, 141, 148-149, 158, 159 Andromeda Galaxy (Messier 31), 59, 70, 163 Antimatter and cosmology, 96 Apollo Telescope Mount, 23 Array processors, 74 Asteroids, 73, 107, 112 Astrometry, 17, 19, 23, 24, 34, 90, 134, 153-154 Astronomy and the forces of nature, 91- 98 Astrophysical theory, 8, 15, 19, 23, 126- 127 Balloons, 13, 23, 25, 67, 75, 101, 106, lp8- 109, 150, 160, 169 Barnard's star, 76, 89 Big bang, 37, 38, 95, 96, 97, 107 Binary stars, 56-58, 142 accretion of mass, 56 Black holes, 54, 57, 96, 97, 147, 153 evaporation of, 97 massive, 53, 62, 103 massive and Sagittarius A, 59 primordial, 97 Carbon monoxide (CO), 51, 68, 70, 85, 89, 151 Carbonaceous chondrites, 73, 89 Cataclysmic variable stars, 142, 159 Centaurus A, 60 Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observa- tory, 117, 119 Comets, 72, 103, 108, 112 Computational facilities, 7, 15, 19, 127- 129 Computer codes for hydrodynamics, 74, 75 Copernicus ultraviolet observatory, 5, 8, 23, 67, 68, 70, 80, 84, 85, 103 COS-B satellite, 23, 69, 105 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 39, 41, 47, 107-108, 109, 141 Cosmic microwave background radiation, 9, 39, 41, 47, 95, 107, 120 Cosmic-ray experiments, 17, 19, 33, 134, 149-150 Cosmic rays, 50, 53, 54, 63, 64, 69, 70, 106, 109, 142, 149 acceleration of, 56, 63 isotopic composition of, 6, 56, 63 Cosmology, 37 185

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186 Crab nebula, 55, 59 Critical matter density, 43 Cyclotron resonance and determination of magnetic fields, 57 Cygnus X-1, 57 Detectors, 14, 22, 123-125 charge-coupled device, 104, 125 cosmic-ray, 125 gamma-ray, 125 infrared array, 124 millimeter and submillimeter, 125 two-dimensional, 104, 124, 125 Deuterium, abundance of, in the Uni- verse, 41, 44 Diffuse gamma-ray background radia- tion, 38, 105 Diffuse x-ray background radiation, 38 Early Universe, 41 Einstein x-ray observatory, 6, 8, 22, 27, 39, 54, 60, 61, 69, 81, 134, 135, 158 Energy sources in the Universe, 91-92 European Space Agency, 102, 149 Expansion of the Universe, 37, 40, 96, 103 Explorer program, 14, 16, 19, 20, 25, 32, 101, 106-108, 134, 14~144, 150 Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), 63, 108, 141, 160 Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope Facility (EUVTF), 148 Far-Ultraviolet Spectograph in Space, 16, 19, 32, 65, 67, 68, 82, 85, 134, 144 145 Fluctuations, adiabatic, 46, 47 isothermal, 46, 47 matter, 46, 47 Formation of stars and planets, 66-76 Funding requirements, new, 18, 19 Galactic winds, 49 Galaxies, active, 52, 53, 58-60, 66, 105, 106, 140, 153, 159, 163 binary, 51 clusters of, 37, 41, 42, 135, 147, 159 clusters and superclusters, formation of, 47, 138 distribution of, 38, 42 elliptical, 45, 49, 53 Index evolution of, 9, 44-53, 103, 104, 112, 134, 137, 140, 147 formation of, 46-48, 134, 137 groups of, 41, 42 Hubble types, 45 interaction with their environment, 51- 53, 119 irregular, 45 l en ticu la r , 45 Local Group, 40 nuclei of, 59, 136, 144 radio, 52, 59, 145 Seyfert, 6, 52, 59, 145 spiral, 45, 49 superclusters of, 41 supermassive, 52 Galilean satellites of Jupiter, 73 Gallium neutrino detector, 80, 94, 114 115 Gamma-ray bursts, 6, 58, 64, 106, 109, 142, 159 Gamma-ray emission lines, 64 Gamma-ray experiments, 18, 158, 165 Gamma Ray Explorer, 5 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), 13, 25, 28, 30, 39, 63, 64, 66, 69, 97, 101, 105 106, 109, 165 Gamma-ray sources, 4, 5, 105 Gauge theory of weak and electromag- netic interactions, 93, 94 General Theory of Relativity, 5, 96, 136, 153 Globular clusters, 40, 43, 47, 52, 102, 103, 137, 163 condensed, 58 Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles, 47, 94, 96, 97 Gravitational radiation, 5, 17, 56, 96, 97, 161 instruments for detection of, 157, 161 Gravitational lens, 6, 147 Grazing Incidence Solar Telescope (GRIST), 111, 148 Hale (5-m) telescope, 22, 137 Heliosphere, 77, 79 Helium, abundance of in the Universe, 41, 44, 65 Hidden mass, 42 11, 93, 94, 147 High Altitude Observatory, 118

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Index High Energy Astronomical Observatories (HEAO S), 22, 23, 30, 38, 59, 109, 160 FIubble constant, 40, 120 Hubble time, 40 Hyades star cluster, 40 Hydrogen, molecules in interstellar space, 67, 71, 85 21-cm line of atomic, 45, 66 Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), 22, 27, 104, 107, 139, 141, 162 Infrared radiation, 50, 69 Infrared spectroscopy, 6, 17 Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, 118 Infrared telescopes, long-duration space- flights of, 157, 161-162 Instrumentation, 14, 19 Interferometry, advanced, 18, 164-165 Intergalactic clouds, 41, 62, 65, 69 Intergalactic gas, 39, 41, 51, 120, 138, 142, 144, 163 Intergalactic medium in clusters of gal- axies, 5, 43, 49, 142 International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM), 78 International Ultraviolet Explorer (lUE), 6, 8, 23, 54, 65, 81, 84, 85, 107 Interplanetary medium, 54, 142 Interstellar dust, 66, 67 source of in stellar winds, 85 Interstellar medium, 4, 45, 46, 66-70, 71, 103, 108, 110, 119, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 149, 159, 160 heating of, 5, 8, 56, 140 hot intercloud, 70 Interstellar radio communication, 88 Interstellar shock waves, 48, 56, 69, 70, 72, 75 lo, 5, 73, 88 Jupiter, 73, 88, 89, 108, 109, 144, 163 Kitt Peak National Observatory, 117 Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), 22, 75, 109 Laboratory astrophysics, 15, 19, 23, 129- 130 187 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) in space, 16, 19, 20, 27, 32, 47, 50, 73, 75, 76, 85, 112, 133, 138, 139-140, 163 Large Magellanic Cloud, 6, 58 Large-scale structure in the Universe, 37- 44 Las Campanas Observatory, 119 Life, in the solar system, 86-88, 89 in the Universe, 86, 88-90 Local Group of galaxies, 39, 40 Look-back time, 45, 51 Magnetic fields, reconnection of, 54, 83, 84 solar, 78, 82, 83 stellar, 82, 83 stellar, origin of, 82, 83 Magnetosphere of the Earth, 54, 83 Mars, 73, 86, 87 Masers, interstellar, 69, 85, 86 Mercury, 73, 87 Messier 31 (M31), 59, 70, 163 Messier 87 (M87), 52, 59 Meteorites, 72, 73 isotopic anomalies in, 74 Milky Way Galaxy, 27, 137, 145 Millimeter-Wave Radio Telescope, 25-Me- ter, 14, 21, 25, 31, 50, 51, 68, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 102, 117, 119-122, 152 Molecular clouds, collapse of, 70, 74, 88, 89, 138, 140 dense cores in, 68, 71, 75 interstellar, 50, 68, 69, 70-72, 75, 88, 89, 112, 120, 138, 151 turbulence in, 70, 75 Molecular spectra, 50, 75 Molecules in interstellar space, 4, 21, 67, 71, 120, 151 Moon, 73 observatories on, 18, 158, 165-166 Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), 21 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 20, 24, 101, 105, 112, 113, 119 National Aeronautics and Space Admin- istration (NASA), 13, 18, 23, 24, 25, 72, 101, 102, 103, 106, 108, 111, 115-117, 124, 126-127, 129, 130, 134, 140-144, 150, 162

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188 National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, 117 National Astronomy Centers, 14, 25, 102, 115, 117-119, 124, 127 National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 130 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 117 National Research Council (NRC), 23, 24, 28 National Science Foundation (NSF), 13, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 115-117, 124, 126, 129, 130 Neutrino astronomy, 14, 79, 93 Neutrino oscillations, 94 Neutrinos, and cosmology, 94 high energy, 94, 95 massive, 43, 44, 51, 93, 94 solar, 5, 25, 93, 102, 114-115 Neutron stars, 4, 55, 57, 58, 62, 64, 96, 97, 108, 142 mass of, 56 New Technology Telescope (NNT), 16, 18, 19, 27, 32, 42, 43, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 65, 73, 75, 85, 112, 133, 137-139 Nuclear energy and the Sun, 79-80, 92, 114 Nucleosynthesis, 3, 46, 48, 54, 55, 56, 64, 105, 106, 137, 149, 165 Nucleus of the Galaxy, 59 Orbiting Solar Observatory (oso), 23 Particle acceleration, 53, 54, 55, 83, 84 Planetary astronomy, 72, 164 Planetary atmospheres, 72, 73, 103, 112, 140 Planetary exploration, 72 Planetary magnetospheres, 72, 77 Planetary nebulae, 48 Planetary science, 72 Planetesimals, 74 Planets, detection of extrasolar, 89, 90, 91, 154, 165 life and intelligence on, 86-91 terrestrial, 74 Proton decay, 96 Protoplanetary disks, 76 Pulsar in a binary-star system, 5, 56, 97 Pulsars, 5, 55, 57, 64, 105, 110, 147 Index Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), 93, 94 Quantum electrodynamics, 92 Quantum theory of gravitation, 97 Quarks, 93 Quasars, 4, 6, 9, 22, 27, 39, 52, 58, 60- 62, 65, 84, 103, 110, 112, 134, 136, 138, 142, 145, 147, 159, 163, 164, 165 absorption lines in, 41, 62, 65, 138 cosmological distances of, 61, 147 emission lines in, 61, 62, 65 energy source of, 61, 62, 65 gamma-ray sources, 61 luminosity indicators, 65 superluminal expansion, 5, 61 theoretical models, 62, 65 x-ray emission, 61 Red dwarfs, 43, 44 Red giants, 48, 50, 68, 85 Red shifts, dependence of galactic prop- erties on, 45 surveys, 38, 42, 159 Rockets, 23, 25, 69, 101, 103, 106, 110, 169 Sacramento Peak Observatory, 117 Sagittarius A, 58 Saturn, 6, 73, 109 Scientific expertise at U.S. universities, 17, 19, 28, 34, 102, 115-117, 134, 154-155 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 17, 19, 20, 28, 33, 90 - 91, 134, 150-151 Shock waves, 54, 55, 56 Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 14, 25, 27, 31, 48, 50, 51, 66, 67, 75, 76, 85, 101, 104, 110, 112-113, 138, 139, 161-162 Skylab satellite, 5, 23, 77 Small Astronomy Satellite-2 (SAS-2), 23, 69, 105, 109 Solar activity, long-term variations in, 77 Solar and stellar activity, 76-86, 114, 142, 147, 149 Solar atmosphere, circulation of, 83, 113 Solar constant, 143 Solar core, 79-80, 149 Solar corona, 4, 76, 77, 78, 143, 160 Solar cosmic rays, 76, 77 Solar Dynamics Explorer, 80 Solar Gamma Ray Telescope, 149

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Index Solar interior dynamics, 80, 143 Solar flares, 23, 54, 63, 76, 77, 78, 113, 143, 149 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), 23, 78 Solar nebula, 74 Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), 14, 25, 31, 33, 63, 78, 101, 110, 111, 112, 11 114, 148 Solar oscillations, 5, 80, 83 Solar Shuttle Facility, 111, 148 Solar Soft X-ray Telescope Facility (SSXTF), 111, 148 Solar system, 72-74 formation, 4, 74 Solar wind, 77, 143, 149 Spacelab, 14, 25, 101, 106, 109, 110-112, 148, 150, 159, 160, 169 Space platform, 111, 150, 160, 162, 165, 169 Space Telescope (ST), 13, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 40, 41, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 63,64,65,67,73,74,82,85,101,102- 105, 118, 127, 135, 137, 140, 144, 163 Spatial interferometer, 17, 19, 34, 134, 152 153, 158, 16~165 SS 433, 6, 58, 64, 146, 147 Star Probe, 79 Stars, collapsed, 43 formation, 9, 21, 49, 70, 84, 85, 107, 119, 136, 140, 163 formation, sequential, 72 Starspots, 81 Stellar mass loss, 6, 8, 50, 66, 84-86, 108, 119, 152-153 Stellar parallaxes, 153, 163, 165 Stellar winds, 80, 81, 84, 85 Submillimeter-wave antenna, 10-m, 17, 19, 34, 50, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 134, 151-152 Sun, coronal eruptions, 77 coronal holes, 5, 77 x-ray bright points, 77 Sunspot cycle, 76, 113 Supernovae, 3, 6, 48, 49, 54, 64, 74, 97, 142, 159 and cosmic rays, 55 remnants, 53, 58, 64, 106, 135, 142, 144, 159, 165 189 shock waves in, 5, 8, 55, 56, 64, 70, 74 Type I, 54, 56, 57 Type II, 54 Synchrotron radiation, 45, 53, 55, 61 Technical support, 15, 19, 130-131 Telescopes of 2-5-m class, 16, 19, 22, 33, 134, 146-148 Theory and data analysis, 15, 126-127 Titan, atmosphere of, 88 Uhuru satellite, 4, 8, 57 Uranus, rings of, 6, 109 Venus, 73, 87, 109 Very Large Array (VLA), 20, 21, 27, 28, 30, 45, 58 117, 127, 135 Very large telescope in space, 157, 162 163 Viking mission to Mars, 73, 87 Very-Long-Baseline (VUB) Array, 15, 18, 19, 27, 31, 64, 66, 85, 112, 133, 135 136, 145, 146, 164 Very-long-baseline interferometry (veal), 5, 10, 58, 59, 61, 85, 145 in space (space MOBS), 16, 19, 33, 66, 134, 145-146, 164 Violent events, 53-66, 119 Virgo cluster of galaxies, 40, 41, 52, 103, 163 Voyager space probe, 5, 6, 73, 88 White dwarfs, 51, 56, 108, 142, 159 X-ray bursters, 58, 64, 108 X-ray observatories, 17, 157, 158-161 X-ray pulsars, 57, 142 X-ray sky, low-resolution survey of, 8, 158 x-ray sources, 4, 8, 108, 135, 141-142 in binary-star systems, 4, 57, 64, 136, 142, 147 X-ray structure of the Universe, 159 X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), 64, 65, 108, 141, 160 X-ray variability, 158