Index

A

Aerial photography, 35, 37

cost, vs satellite imagery, 38

crop production models, 40

forestry, 57

soil/crop variability, 54

vegetation indexes, 48

Agricultural chemicals, 77, 98

see also Fertilizers;

Pest control;

Herbicides;

Variable rate technology

Agricultural extension services, 7, 90, 104, 106, 114

telecommunications, 11, 107

Agricultural inputs, 18, 49, 52, 56-57

cost factors, 73

evaluation methodology, 97, 100-101, 103

subfield scale, 73, 101

see also Environmental issues;

Agricultural chemicals

Agricultural machinery, 44, 65-66, 80-81, 82

cost factors, 70-71, 80-81

forestry, 56

private R&D funding, 93

sensors and, 97, 98

floaters, 33-34, 65

standards, 98

turnkey computer systems, 78-79

Agricultural production, general, 1, 46, 49

crop models, 39-40, 49-50, 53, 101

crop yield and profit maps, 4

data standards, ISO 8211, 98, 99

spatial dimension, 39-40, 49-50, 53

Agricultural productivity, general, 1, 46, 48, 67, 102

local sensors, 97

R&D funding, 93

stochastic processes, 49-50

yield mapping systems, 31, 38, 45, 49, 53, 55, 63, 66, 115

yield monitors, 22, 31, 38, 66, 78, 100, 115

Agricultural Research Service, 90, 91

Agriculture Electronics Association, 98, 108

American Committee for Inoperable Systems, 111

American Farm Bureau Federation, 108, 111



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Index sensors and, 97, 98 A floaters, 33-34, 65 Aerial photography, 35, 37 standards, 98 cost, vs satellite imagery, 38 turnkey computer systems, 78-79 crop production models, 40 Agricultural production, general, 1, 46, 49 forestry, 57 crop models, 39-40, 49-50, 53, 101 soil/crop variability, 54 crop yield and profit maps, 4 vegetation indexes, 48 data standards, ISO 8211, 98, 99 Agricultural chemicals, 77, 98 spatial dimension, 39-40, 49-50, 53 see also Fertilizers; Pest control; Agricultural productivity, general, 1, 46, Herbicides; Variable rate technology 48, 67, 102 Agricultural extension services, 7, 90, local sensors, 97 104, 106, 114 R&D funding, 93 telecommunications, 11, 107 stochastic processes, 49-50 Agricultural inputs, 18, 49, 52, 56-57 yield mapping systems, 31, 38, 45, 49, cost factors, 73 53, 55, 63, 66, 115 evaluation methodology, 97, 100-101, yield monitors, 22, 31, 38, 66, 78, 100, 103 115 subfield scale, 73, 101 Agricultural Research Service, 90, 91 see also Environmental issues; Agriculture Electronics Association, 98, Agricultural chemicals 108 Agricultural machinery, 44, 65-66, 80-81, American Committee for Inoperable 82 Systems, 111 cost factors, 70-71, 80-81 American Farm Bureau Federation, 108, forestry, 56 111 private R&D funding, 93 141

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142 INDEX diffusion of technology, 67, 68-69, 70- B 72 Biomass variation, 48, 55 environmental benefits vs costs, 87, 89 Biotechnology, 52, 64, 86 fertilizers, 56 germplasm, 44 fixed, 70 herbicide resistance, 52 human capital, 70, 71 private sector, 94 inputs, 73 long-term, 72-73 nutrient assays, 4 C pest control, 60, 81 California Irrigation Management remote sensing, 38, 72-73 Information System, 23-25, 66, 68 sampling strategies, 97 Cartography, see Maps and mapping subfield management, 21 Case studies, 3, 73, 74, 76, 103, 104 telecommunications, private Cation exchange capacity, 32 investment, 106-107 Census of Agriculture, 115 weed management, 80-81 Center pivot irrigation, 67, 70 Cotton, 47, 50-51, 63, 71, 77, 86 Chemicals, see Agricultural chemicals Crop models, 5, 101-103 Committee on Criteria for Federal Support aerial photography, 40 of Research and Development, 95-96 ground-based sensors, 34 Communications, see production, 39-40, 49-50, 53, 101 Telecommunications remote sensing, 36, 37, 38 Computer products and services, 20, 31, spatial dimension, 39-40, 49-50, 53 66, 70, 71, 77, 78-79, 85, 97-99, Crop yield, see Agricultural production; 118 Agricultural productivity CIMIS, 23-25, 66, 68 education, 104 D expert systems, 13, 37, 77, 101 turnkey, 78-79 Data collection and processing, 5, 17, 18, see also Data collection and processing; 92, 109, 118-119 Data ownership and privacy; crop consultant, profile, 26-27 Intellectual property; Internet data sharing, 7, 9, 11, 13, 22, 87-88, 99- Conservation tillage, 94 100, 103, 106, 111 Cooperative Research and Development decision support systems, 41, 42-43 Agreement, 95 environmental monitoring, 87-88, 111 Cooperative State Research, Education, geographic information systems, 5, 30- and Extension Service, 91 31 Copyright, see Intellectual property geographic scales, 19-20 Copyright Act, 111 georeferencing, 7, 22, 28-30 Corn, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70 methodology, 96-99, 100-101 Cost factors, 12, 72, 119 Natural Resources Inventory, 115-116 aerial vs satellite imagery, 38 public sector role, 10-11, 97, 112-119 agricultural machinery, 70-71, 80-81 regional, 7, 111-112 floater/variable-rate technologies, 33- soil, 9, 10, 112, 113-114, 116 34 spatial dimension, 22, 23 chemicals dealers, 77 standards, 7-8, 10, 97-98, 114, 118 cost-benefit analysis, 51, 81-82, 87, 89 see also Image processing

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INDEX 143 Data ownership and privacy, 6, 7, 10, 92, GPS, 104 108, 110-112, 118 land grant universities, 3, 9, 71, 91, see also Intellectual property 101, 104-105 Decision support systems, 1, 4, 5, 11-12, private sector reticence, 93, 94 18, 40-43, 104 public sector role, general, 3, 90, 92 crop/information technology/decision- see also Technical assistance; making linkage, 46 Technology diffusion data collection/processing, 41, 42-43 Employment issues, 3, 13, 79-81, 88 expert systems, 13, 37, 77, 101 age of farmers, 81 farm size/structure impacts, 81-82 government research agencies, 91 georeferencing, 28 human capital, 70, 71 precision agriculture defined, 2 pesticides, farmworker safety, 61 spatial dimension, 41-42 rural development, 13, 79-81 theory, 100 Environmental issues, vi, 3, 9, 11-14 weather, 61 (passim), 85-89, 119 weed management, 41-42 conservation tillage, 94 Department of Agriculture, 3, 7 cost-benefit factors, 87, 89 Agricultural Research Service, 90, 91 data collection/processing, 87-88, 111 data management, 10, 116 export markets for technology, 107 evaluation/coordination role, 9, 10, 99 evaluation, 99, 100, 103-104 R&D, 90-92, 101 fertilizers, 13-14, 55-56, 85-86, 87 Department of Defense, 93 forestry, 57 see also Global Positioning System landscape analysis, 23 Differential Global Positioning System, pest control, 13-14, 60, 61, 85-86, 87 29, 32, 33, 61, 63 private sector investment, 94-95 Doppler radar, 61-62 public sector role, 96, 101, 102 Dissemination of research, see standards, 98 Technology diffusion Equipment, see Agricultural machinery Drip irrigation, 67, 68, 70, 85 Equipment Manufacturers Institute, 98 Erosion, 23 Evaluation E agricultural inputs, general, 97, 100- Economic factors, 6, 11-12, 14, 105 101, 103 evaluation, 9, 74-76, 99-101 CRADA, 95-96 farm/size structure, 12-13, 81-85, 88 databases, 111 forestry, 57 DOA role, 9, 10, 99 information technology, evaluation of economic factors, 9, 74-76, 99-101 impacts on, 74-76 environmental issues, 99, 100, 103-104 profitability, 9, 12, 45, 67, 69, 70, 72, fertilizer application, 73, 76 76, 96 information technology, economic vertical integration, 85 impacts of, 74-76 see also Cost factors; Employment methodology, 9, 10, 18, 96-101, 103 issues; Funding; Private sector public sector role, 9, 10, 96-101 Economic Research Service, 115 see also Economic factors; Education and training, 5-6, 104-106 Environmental issues; Standards computer use, 104 Evapotranspiration, 23, 24-25, 36, 39 continuing professional, 6, 105 Expert systems, 13, 37, 77, 101

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144 INDEX Extension services, see Agricultural education, 104 extension services forestry, 56, 57 Georeferencing, 7, 28 F data collection/processing, 7, 22, 28-30 see also Global Positioning System Farm size/structure Geostatistics, 4, 5 decision support systems, 81-82 kriging, 59 economic factors, 12-13, 81-85, 88 GLObal Navigation Satellite System, 29 Federal Geographic Data Committee, 98 Global Positioning System, 5, 28-33 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 95 (passim), 38, 78, 90, 108 Fertilizers, 51, 55-59, 102 education, 104 cost factors, 56 forestry, 56 harvest timing, 48 harvest, 63 pollution, 13-14, 55-56, 85-86, 87 pesticides, 61 spatial dimension, 55, 58-59 private sector role, 94 subfield scale, 73, 101 real-time sensing, 29 synthetic, 44 Grains, 31, 66, 70, 76 variable-rate technologies, 33, 65-66, Grid soil sampling, 58-59, 66, 100, 113 76 Groundbased sensors, 34-35, 97 Floaters, 33-34, 65 floaters, 33-34, 65 Foreign trade, 107 Forestry management, 2 site-specific, 56-57 H Freedom of Information Act, 110-111 Harvest, 63 Fruit growth, 46-47 fertilizers, 48 Fruit yield, 31 forestry, 56 Funding GPS, 63 CRADA, 95-96 machinery costs, 80-81 disclosure, 9 plant population data, 53 GPS, 91 timing, 46, 48 Internet, 91 vegetative-to-fruit growth, 47 land grant universities, 105 Herbicides, 51, 60-61 machinery, 93 forestry, 56 private, 92-95 resistant plant varieties, 52 public, 93, 95, 96 Humidity measurements, 62-63 Agricultural Research Service, 91, 92 other USDA funding, 92 I G Image processing, 5, 10-11, 36 crop consultant, profile, 26 General Accounting Office, 107 Infrared sensing, 37 Genetic engineering, see Biotechnology vegetation indexes, 32, 36, 46-48 Geographic information systems, 5, 30-33, Inputs, see Agricultural inputs 39-40, 49, 59, 78, 94, 97, 111, 115, Insect control, see Pest control 117 Integrated pest management, 12, 59-61, data collection/processing, 5, 30-31 66, 85, 101 decision support systems, 28

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INDEX 145 Intellectual property, copyright/patents, geographic information systems, 30-31, 108-112, 118 49 CRADA, 95 geostatistics and, 4 private sector dilemma, 93-94 GLObal Navigation Satellite System, remote sensing, 108 29 see also Data ownership and privacy humidity, 63 Interferometry, 40 product quality, 63 Internet, 12, 20, 91, 106, 107-108 sensing techniques, general, 5 CIMIS, 23-25 soil, general, 73, 101 weather, 62 Cooperative Soil Survey, 9, 10, Investment, see Funding 112, 113-11, 116-117 IPM, see Integrated pest management variable-rate technologies, 32, 33 Irrigation weeds, 42, 53 center pivot, 67, 70 see also Global Positioning System; CIMIS, 23-25, 66, 68 Yield mapping systems cotton, 47 Marketing, 6, 12, 63 drip, 67, 68, 70, 85 databases, 111 harvest timing and, 48 diffusion of technology, 69 low-volume, 66, 67-70, 83, 85 harvest dates predicted, 46 variable-rate technologies, 33 Models and modeling ISO 8211, 98, 99 cotton growth, 50-51 crop/information technology/decision- K making linkage, 46 crop/pest interactions, 102, 103 Kriging, 59 forestry, 56-57 multivariate, 48-51, 100, 103 L soil, 101-103 spatial, general, 4, 19-20 Land grant universities, 3, 9, 71, 91, 101, see also Crop models; Decision support 104-105 systems; Kriging Land Remote Sensing Policy Act, 38 Multivariate analysis, 48-51, 100, 103 LANDSAT remote sensing, 38, 57, 91, 115, 119 Landscape analysis, 23 N Legal issues, see Data ownership and NASA, see Landsat remote sensing privacy; Intellectual property National Agricultural Statistics Service, Lewin-Kolb model, 19 114-115 LIDAR, 57 National Cooperative Soil Survey, 9, 10, Livestock, 2, 93, 98 112, 113-114, 116-117 Local agencies, see State and local National Information Infrastructure agencies Council/Task Force, 108, 111 Natural Resources Conservation Service, M 10, 115-117 see also National Cooperative Soil Machinery, see Agricultural machinery Survey Maps and mapping Natural Resources Inventory, 115-116 fertility, 73

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146 INDEX systems approach, 48-49, 100, 101 O Privacy, see Data ownership and privacy Occupational safety and health, pesticides, Private sector, vi, 5, 90 61 agricultural machinery, 93 On-line systems, see Internet; biotechnology, 94 Telecommunications data processing, 11 Open GIS Foundation, 98 diffusion of technology, 90, 91-92 education, 93, 94 environmental protection, 94-95 P evaluation, 9, 99, 101 Patents, see Intellectual property funding levels, 92-95 PC-Plant Protection, 41 GPS, 94 Pest control, 4, 16, 17, 40, 44, 51, 59-61 professional societies, 6, 98, 99, 106 cost factors, 60, 81 public sector cooperation, 95-96, 98, crop production modeling, 39 100-101, 114-115, 118 decision support systems, 41-42 R&D, 90, 93-94 environmental issues, 60, 61 telecommunications infrastructure, 106- GPS, 61 107 ground-based sensors, 35 weather satellites, 61-62 humidity, 62-63 Production, see Agricultural production pollutants, 13-14, 60, 61, 85-86, 87 Productivity, see Agricultural productivity R&D policy, 102 Professional societies, 6, 98, 99, 106 scouting, 16, 83 Profitability, 9, 12, 45, 67, 69, 70, 72, 76, soil, 60 96 spatial dimension, general, 60-61 Public sector role, vi, 3, 5, 90, 90-119 subfield management, 21, 41-42 data collection and processing, 10-11, see also Integrated pest management; 97, 112-119 Weed management diffusion of technology, 90-92, 100-101 Photosynthesis, 39 education, general, 3, 90, 92 Plant control, see Herbicides; Weed environmental protection, 96, 101, 102 management evaluation, 9, 10, 96-101 Plant diseases, 21 federal agencies other than DOA, 91, scouting, 16, 83 116, 119 Pollution, see Environmental issues funding, 93, 95, 96 Precision agricultural, general, 119 Agricultural Research Service, 91, 92 ancillary uses, 77 other USDA funding, 92 components, 65 land grant universities, 3, 9, 71, 91, conventional vs, 9, 16-17, 44, 48-51, 101, 104-105 87, 93, 94, 101 private sector cooperation, 95-96, 98, defined, 2, 17-18 100-101, 114-115, 118 export markets for technology, 107 R&D, 3, 90-96, 101-104 farm size/structure impacts, 12-13, 81- standards, 97-99, 118 85, 88 telecommunications, 106-108 high- vs low-value crops, 77 weather satellites, 61-62 management factors, 51-52 see also Department of Agriculture; NAS study focus, 18-19 State and local agencies; other public service/product provision, forms, 77-79 agencies

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INDEX 147 Rural development, vi, 88-89 R employment, 13, 79-81 Real-time processing, 4 telecommunications, 11, 13, 106-108 Global Positioning System, 29 see also Farm size/structure ground-based, 34-35 spatial data, 22 S variable-rate technologies, 32-33 weather, 20, 62 Satellite technology, 35-36, 37, 38, 106, Regional dimension, 23-25 115, 119 databases, 7, 111-112 cost factors, 38 weather, 61, 62 CIMIS, 25 Remote sensing, 5, 35-39, 101 GLObal Navigation Satellite System, 29 cost of, 38, 72-73 Landsat remote sensing, 38, 57, 91, crop growth graphs from, 47-48 115, 119 crop models, 36, 37, 38 private sector, 61-62 forestry, 56-57 weather, 61-62, 115 image processing, 5, 10-11, 26, 36 see also Global Positioning System intellectual property issues, 108 Scouting, 16, 83 Land Remote Sensing Policy Act, 38 Seasonal factors, 48, 50 LANDSAT remote sensing, 38, 57, 91, Seeds, 52-53, 86 115, 119 germplasm, 44 privacy issues, 110-111 Sensing and sensors, 4-5 soil and crop variability, 54 real-time sensing, 4, 20, 22, 29, 32-35, spatial data, 22, 36-38, 48 62 telecommunications, local access, 108 see also Ground-based sensors; Image variable-rate technologies, 32, 33 processing; Remote sensing; vegetation indexes, 32, 36, 46-48 Spectroscopy see also Aerial photography; Infrared Social factors, vi, 11, 13, 105, 119 sensing see also Employment issues Research and development, 27-28 Soil science, 3, 16, 51, 53-59, 67 Agricultural Research Service, 90, 91 aerial photography, 54 decision theory, 100 cation exchange capacity, 32 DOA role, 90-92, 101 CIMIS, 23-25 fertility, 90-91 Cooperative Soil Survey, 9, 10, 112, funding, 91, 92, 93, 95-96 113-114, 116 groundbased sensors, 34-35 data collection, general, 9, 10, 112, multidisciplinary, 5, 6-7 113-114, 116 pest control, 102 depth assessments, 53 private sector role, 90, 93-94 erosion, 23 public sector role, 3, 90-96, 101-104 fertility research, 73, 90-91 public/private sector cooperation, 95-96 forestry, 56-57 state agricultural experiment stations, georeferencing, 28 92, 94, 95 grid sampling, 58-59, 66, 100, 113 traditional vs emergent, 2, 3-6, 44, 48-51 groundbased sensors, 34-35 see also Biotechnology; Case studies; mapping, general, 73, 101 Evaluation; Technology diffusion Cooperative Soil Survey, 9, 10, 112, Russia, 29 113-114, 116-117

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148 INDEX modeling, 101-103 soil and crop variability, 54 nutrient assays, 4, 35 see also Infrared sensing pesticides, 60 Standards, 7-8, 10, 97-99, 113, 114, 118 phosphorus, 32, 35, 58, 56, 57-58, 73 agricultural machinery, 98 plant genetics, drought-prone soils, 52 data collection/processing, 7-8, 10, 97- plant population, 52-53 98, 114, 118 potassium, 35, 56, 73 diffusion of technology, 7-8, 10, 97-98 remote sensing, 54 environmental, 98 R&D policy, 102 ISO 8211, 98, 99 spatial dimension, 54, 113, 114 public sector role, 97-99, 118 grid sampling, 58-59, 66, 100, 113 spatial dimension, 99 stochastic processes, 49 telecommunications, 99 subfield management, 21, 49, 101 State and local agencies variable-rate technologies, 32 CIMIS, 23-25, 66, 68 see also Fertilizers Cooperative Soil Survey, 9, 10, 112, 113 Soybean, 70, 77, 86 Cooperative State Research, Education, Spatial Data Transfer Standard, 98 and Extension Service, 91 Spatial dimension, 5, 6, 17, 51 data processing and transfer, 11 CIMIS, 23-25 land grant universities, 3, 9, 71, 91, crop production modeling, 39-40, 49- 101, 104-105 50, 53 state agricultural experiment stations, data management, 22, 23 92, 94, 95, 99 decision support systems, 41-42 telecommunications regulation, 107 fertilizer, 55, 58-59 Statistics forestry, 56 multivariate, 48-51, 100, 103 geographic scales of application, 19-26 regression analysis, 100, 103 heterogeneity, 44 stochastic processes, 49-50 intellectual property issues, 108 see also Data collection and processing; landscape analysis, 23 Data ownership and privacy; methodology, 96 103 Geostatistics pest control, 60-61 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation subfield management, 21, 41-42 Act, 95 regional, 7, 23-25, 61, 62, 111-112 Stochastic processes, 49-50 remote sensing, 22, 36-38, 48 Subfield dimension, 50, 97, 111 sampling strategies, 97 agricultural inputs, general, 73, 101 soil and crop variability, 54, 113, 114 cost factors, 21 grid sampling, 58-59, 66, 100, 113 fertilizers, 73, 101 standards, 99 pest control, 21, 41-42 subfield management, 21, 41-42, 49, plant diseases, 21 50, 62, 73, 97, 101, 111 soils, 21, 49, 101 variable-rate technologies, 32-34 weather, 21, 49-50 weather, 61 Systems approach, general, 48-49, 100, 101 yield monitors, 22, 31 see also Georeferencing; Global T Positioning System; Maps and mapping Technical assistance Spectroscopy, 37 Cooperative Soil Survey, 10

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INDEX 149 crop consultants, V diffusion of technology, 69, 71-72, Variable-rate technology, 32-34, 38, 59, 77-79 (passim), 83 65-66, 73, 76, 86-87, 97-98 education, 104 cost, 33-34 pests control, 42 fertilizers, 33, 65-66, 76 profile of, 26-27 irrigation, 33 see also Agricultural extension services mapping, 32, 33 Technology diffusion, 5, 13, 66-89, 90, 119 real-time processing, 32-33 crop consultants, 69, 71-72, 77-79 remote sensing, 32, 33 (passim), 83 soils, 32 cost factors, 67, 68-69, 70-72 spatial dimension, 32-34 data ownership and privacy, 6, 7, 10, 92 Vegetable yield, 31 data sharing, 7, 9, 11, 13, 22, 87-88, 99- Vegetables, 77 100, 103, 106 Vegetation indexes, 32, 36, 46-48 marketing, 69 VRT, see Variable rate technology private sector role, 90, 91-92 public sector role, 90-92, 100-101 standards, 7-8, 10, 97-98 W Telecommunications, 11, 13, 106-108 Weather, 5, 17, 20, 37, 61-63, 67 agricultural extension services, 11, 107 CIMIS, 23-25, 66, 68 private investment, 106-107 decision support systems, 61 public sector role, 106-108 Doppler radar, 61-62 remote sensing, local access, 108 evapotranspiration, 23, 24-25, 36, 39 spatial scales and, 20 forestry, 56-57 standards, 99 humidity, 62-63 rural development, 11, 13, 106-108 precipitation, 62 weather data, 62 real-time processing, 20, 62 see also California Irrigation satellites, 61-62, 115 Management Information System; stochastic factor, 49-50 Internet subfield management, 21, 49-50 Telecommunications Deregulation Act of weather data, 11, 23-25, 66, 68, 107 1996, 11, 107 Weed management, 60 Temporal dimension, 17 decision support systems, 41-42 crop production modeling, 40, 49-50 machinery costs, 80-81 fertilizer, 55 mapping, 42, 53 management factors, general, 51 plant population data, 53 pesticides, 60-61 scouting, 16, 83 seasonal factors, 48, 50 see also Herbicides weather, 61 WeedSOFT, 42, 43 see also Harvest; Seasonal factors Topography, 67 Y Training, see Education and training Turnkey systems, software, 78 Yield mapping systems, 31, 38, 45, 49, 53, 63, 66, 115 fertilizers, 55 U Yield monitors, 22, 31, 38, 66, 78, 100, USDA, see Department of Agriculture 115

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