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--> Appendix A Table of Contents A-1 Forestland cover in the United States, by ownership, 1982, 1987, and 1992 (thousand acres) A-2 Nonfederal forestland area in the United States by region, 1987 and 1992 (thousand acres) A-3 Timberland area in the United States, by ownership and region, 1952-1992 (thousand acres) A-4 Changes in land use and cover in the United States, 1982 and 1992 (thousand acres) A-5 Forested and nonforested urban land area in the United States, by region, 1992 (thousand acres) A-6 Area of tree planting in the United States, including seeding, by ownership and region, 1991-1995 (acres) A-7 Artificial versus natural origin of forest stands on nonfederal timberland in the Southeast region (thousand acres) A-8 Projected area of pine plantations in Southeast and South Central regions, 2000-2040 (million acres) A-9 Projected area of plantation on private timberland in the South Central, Southeast, and Pacific Northwest regions, 1990-2040 (million acres) A-10 Forestland area in the United States, by region and ownership, 1992 (thousand acres)

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--> A-11 Private forestland area and number of private ownership units in the United States, by region, 1978 and 1994 A-12 Number of private owners of forestland in the United States, by size class of ownership, 1978 and 1994 A-13 Area of forestland owned by private owners in the United States, by size class of ownership, 1978 and 1994 A-14 Area of forestland owned by private owners in the United States, by date of acquisition, 1978 and 1994 A-15 Number of private forestland owners in the United States, by date of acquisition, 1978 and 1994 A-16 Private forestland area and number of forestland ownership units in the United States, by whether a written management plan had been prepared, 1994 A-17 Area of forestland and number of private ownership units in the United States, by primary reason for owning forest land, 1994 A-18 Economic characteristics of wood-based industries in the United States, by number of employees, payroll, and value of shipments, 1992 A-19 Softwood and hardwood timber harvest in the United States, by ownership, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 (million cubic feet) A-20 Timber harvest in the United States, by region, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 A-21 Timber growing stock inventory in the United States, by ownership, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 (million cubic feet) A-22 Net annual growth of softwoods and hardwoods in the United States, by ownership, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 (million cubic feet) A-23 Budget history of State and Private Forestry, USDA Forest Service, 1992-1996 (million dollars) A-24 Federal programs designed to provide financial assistance for forest-related activities, by region, federal FY 1993 (dollars) A-25 Forestry program expenditures by state governments, by region, 1994 (thousands of dollars) A-26 Finances of state forestry agencies, by region and source of support, 1994 (thousands of dollars) A-27 State government programs focused on major private forestry activities by activity, region, and type of program, 1992

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--> A-28 Summary of research on variables affecting the decisions by private, nonindustrial forest landowners to plant trees in the United States A-29 Effectiveness of state forestry programs focused on private forestry activities as judged by program managers, activity, and program type, 1992

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--> TABLE A-1 Forestland cover in the United States, by ownership, 1982, 1987, and 1992 (thousand acres)       Nonfederal Public   Private       Year All Owners Nonfederal Owners Total Nonfederal Public1 State County and Municipal Total Private Forest Industry Other Private Indian 1982 731,304 492,212 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 13,302 1987 734,559 484,763 66,886 n/a n/a 417,877 71,368 330,598 15,911 1992 736,684 487,553 63,798 53,315 10,483 423,755 71,209 336,647 15,899 1 1987 data is a rough estimate. 2 Managed in trust by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 3 USDA Forest Service reports currently overstate the nation's nonfederal forest land in 1987 by slightly more than 39 million acres (personal communication, J. Faulkner 1996). Note: n/a means not available. Source: USDA Forest Service (unpublished data; personal communication, J. Faulkner 1996), USDI - Bureau of Indian Affairs (undated and 1983), and Intertribal Timber Council 1993.

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--> TABLE A-2 Nonfederal forestland area in the United States by region, 1987 and 1992 (thousand acres) Region 1987 1992 North Central 70,525 73,158 Northeast 81,739 82,262 Pacific Northwest 76,337 76,022 Pacific Southwest 19,907 19,729 Rocky Mountain 46,772 43,587 South Central 107,145 113,893 Southeast 82,338 78,897 Total 484,763 487,548 Source: USDA Forest Service unpublished data and personal communication, J. Faulkner 1996. Note: 1992 forestland totals differ slightly between Table A-1 and Table A-6, due to the use of different reports. 1987 data includes Native American lands managed in trust by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

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--> TABLE A-3 Timberland area in the United States, by ownership[ and region, 1952-1992 (thousand acres)         Nonfederal, Public     Private       Region Year All Ownerships Total Nonfederal Total Nonfederal, Public State County/Municipal Total Private Forest Industry Total, Farmer and Other Private Farmer Other Private North Central 1952 81,240 72,820 13,455 7,054 6,401 59,365 3,577 55,788 32,828 22,960   1962 78,731 70,552 12,726 7,410 5,316 57,826 3,583 54,243 30,420 23,824   1977 74,885 67,096 12,544 7,613 4,931 54,552 4,664 49,887 26,451 23,436   1987 74,584 66,594 12,385 7,503 4,882 54,209 4,361 49,848 23,255 26,593   1992 78,350 70,038 13,318 8,165 5,153 56,720 4,340 52,380 21,615 30,765 Northeast 1952 73,035 70,590 4,810 4,225 585 65,780 10,144 55,636 22,956 32,680   1962 77,875 75,431 5,075 4,514 561 70,356 10,105 60,251 17,707 42,544   1977 78,561 76,249 5,921 5,171 750 70,328 12,789 57,539 13,063 44,476   1987 79,834 76,909 6,665 5,665 1,000 70,244 12,575 57,669 12,868 44,801   1992 79,449 76,937 6,165 5,167 998 70,772 11,858 58,914 9,390 49,525 Pacific Northwest 1952 65,218 25,676 3,440 2,967 473 22,236 9,046 13,190 5,527 7,663   1962 64,602 25,033 3,511 3,177 334 21,522 9,426 12,096 5,366 6,730   1977 61,855 26,905 6,605 6,300 305 20,300 9,841 10,459 4,285 6,174   1987 54,697 32,273 7,821 7,474 347 24,452 9,702 14,750 2,579 12,171   1992 52,919 31,519 7,773 7,445 328 23,746 9,034 14,712 2,459 12,253 Pacific Southwest 1952 18,216 9,477 688 680 8 8,789 2,167 6,622 2,030 4,592   1962 18,287 9,034 559 554 5 8,475 2,445 6,030 1,883 4,147   1977 17,251 8,805 548 521 27 8,257 2,687 5,570 1,646 3,924   1987 17,412 8,361 445 431 14 7,916 2,757 5,159 1,523 3,636   1992 16,900 8,221 445 431 14 7,776 3,280 4,497 1,313 3,183

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--> Rocky Mountains 1952 66,599 22,458 2,313 2,240 73 20,145 2,250 17,895 10,181 7,713   1962 66,920 22,195 2,310 2,236 74 19,885 2,240 17,645 10,008 7,638   1977 60,173 21,866 2,310 2,234 76 19,556 2,095 17,460 9,837 7,622   1987 61,140 22,438 2,693 2,566 127 19,745 2,964 16,781 8,008 8,773   1992 62,628 22,887 2,647 2,546 101 20,240 2,918 17,322 8,223 9,098 South Central 1952 115,479 107,456 1,533 1,067 466 105,923 17,851 88,072 44,187 43,885   1962 117,663 109,773 1,670 1,187 483 108,103 18,841 89,262 36,873 52,389   1977 111,812 103,644 1,805 1,305 500 101,839 21,548 80,291 29,573 50,718   1987 112,128 103,211 1,937 1,485 452 101,274 21,438 79,836 28,157 51,679   1992 114,515 105,536 2,368 1,814 554 103,168 22,774 80,395 21,041 59,354 Southeast 1952 89,067 82,323 1,143 951 192 81,180 13,944 67,236 55,072 12,165   1962 91,040 84,198 1,404 1,199 205 82,794 14,794 68,000 41,390 26,610   1977 87,818 80,905 1,549 1,303 246 79,356 15,312 64,044 29,629 34,415   1987 85,141 78,099 2,028 1,713 315 76,071 16,550 59,521 19,401 40,120   1992 84,794 77,763 2,124 1,789 335 75,639 16,252 59,387 18,444 40,943 United States 1952 508,854 390,799 27,380 19,183 8,197 363,419 58,979 304,440 172,781 131,660   1962 515,118 396,216 27,254 20,277 6,977 368,962 61,434 307,528 143,645 163,883   1977 492,355 385,468 31,282 24,447 6,835 354,186 68,937 285,249 114,485 170,765   1987 484,936 387,885 33,974 26,837 7,137 353,911 70,347 283,564 95,791 187,773   1992 489,555 392,901 34,840 27,356 7,484 358,061 70,455 287,606 82,484 205,121   Source: USDA-Forest Service 1994a.

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--> TABLE A-4 Changes in land use and cover in the United States, 1983 and 1992 (thousand acres)   Land use or cover in 1992             Land Cover/Use in 1982 Nonfederal Cropland Nonfederal Pastureland Nonfederal Rangeland Nonfederal Forestland Other Nonfederal Rural Land cover/uses1 Nonfederal Developed land Water Areas and Federal land 1982 Total Nonfederal Cropland 361,233 14,813 2,096 3,136 34,087 4,161 1,434 420,961 Nonfederal Pastureland 11,816 104,647 1,475 8,222 2,636 2,468 623 131,887 Nonfederal Rangeland 5,686 2,416 391,654 1,524 1,852 2,120 3,650 408,901 Nonfederal Forestland 1,457 2,864 1,136 379,594 1,296 5,584 2,434 394,364 Minor land cover/uses 1,178 808 271 1,426 48,480 291 372 52,825 Nonfederal Developed land 251 85 91 217 22 77,705 3 78,373 Water Areas and Federal land 697 293 2,226 840 251 24 448,370 452,702 1992 Total 382,317 125,927 398,949 394,958 88,624 92,352 456,885 1,940,011 Note: Read this table horizontally to determine how a particular 1982 land use (row heading) was distributed in 1992 (column headings). Read this table vertically to determine where a particular 1992 land use (column heading) came from, in terms of 1982 land uses (row headings). Columns may not sum due to rounding. 1 Includes land under Conservation Reserve Program contracts, farmsteads and other farm structures, field windbreaks, barren land such as salt flats or exposed rock, and marshland. Source: USDA NRCS 1995.

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--> TABLE A-5 Forested and nonforested urban land area in the United States, by region, 1992 (thousand acres) Region Urban Forest Land Nonforested Urban Land Total1 North Central 4,421 10,137 14,558 Northeast 4,247 7,332 11,579 Pacific Northwest 601 1,501 2,102 Pacific Southwest 817 3,599 4,415 Rocky Mountain 624 5,431 6,054 South Central 4,518 9,346 13,864 Southeast 4,935 7,478 12,413 Other2 52 311 363 Total 20,214 45,135 65,349 1 Does not include Alaska or federal lands. 2 Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Source: USDA-NRCS 1996.

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--> TABLE A-20 Timber harvest in the United States, by region, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040   Region (percent)       Year North Central2 and Northeast South Central and Southeast Rocky Mountains3 Pacific Northwest4 & Pacific Southwest5 1952 21 47 5 28 1962 19 41 6 34 1970 16 44 7 33 1976 16 44 7 32 1986 24 45 6 26 1991 26 46 7 21 Projections1         2000 28 51 6 15 2010 29 52 5 14 2020 28 52 5 14 2030 28 52 5 14 2040 28 52 4 15 Source: USDA Forest Service 1995a. Note: Rows may not add to 100 due to rounding 1 Projections assume current public and private policies directed at forest use and management remain unchanged. 2 Includes Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 3 Excludes Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. 4 Excludes Alaska. 5 Excludes Hawaii.

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--> TABLE A-21 Timber growing stock inventory in the United States, by ownership, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 (million cubic feet)     Estimate Projections1 Ownership Resource 1952 1962 1970 1976 1986 1991 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 National Forest Softwoods 204,437 213,696 211,927 208,099 186,313 185,574 191,645 210,300 230,036 250,718 271,911   Hardwoods 13,556 17,207 19,721 21,567 25,107 25,641 28,860 32,129 35,352 38,636 42,001 Other Public Softwoods 55,184 55,720 57,521 59,039 57,255 50,002 54,088 58,069 62,450 67,800 73,683   Hardwoods 16,417 20,621 23,894 26,365 31,256 32,857 37,623 43,047 48,292 53,549 58,874 Forest Industry Softwoods 70,672 69,647 69,494 69,370 67,410 66,142 61,500 72,240 82,957 88,211 90,276   Hardwoods 20,270 25,324 29,281 32,249 35,278 34,773 34,117 33,017 33,226 33,592 33,670 Farm & Other Private Softwoods 101,497 110,693 121,345 130,448 141,933 148,175 145,486 146,364 148,692 149,151 145,300   Hardwoods 133,627 152,469 168,474 185,717 220,707 242,177 251,073 257,160 251,614 243,026 234,183 United States Softwoods 431,790 449,756 460,287 466,956 452,911 449,893 452,719 486,973 524,135 555,880 581,170   Hardwoods 183,870 215,621 241,370 265,898 312,348 335,448 351,673 365,353 368,484 368,803 368,728 Total 615,660 665,377 701,657 732,854 732,854 765,259 785,341 804,342 852,326 892,619 924,683 949,898 1 Projections assume current public and private policies directed at forest use and management remain unchanged. Source: USDA Forest Service 1995a.

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--> TABLE A-22 Net annual growth of softwoods and hardwoods in the United States, by ownership, 1952-1991, with projections to 2040 (million cubic feet)     Estimate Projections1 Ownership Resource 1952 1962 1970 1976 1986 1991 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 National Forest Softwoods 1,664 1,999 2,367 2,468 2,783 2,747 2,779 2,924 3,061 3,185 3,225   Hardwoods 396 508 573 658 617 544 532 497 491 499 507 Other Public Softwoods 730 961 1,113 1,191 1,371 1,130 1,099 1,132 1,214 1,348 1,335   Hardwoods 492 634 749 840 978 834 788 769 754 769 763 Forest Industry Softwoods 1,793 2,234 2,523 2,844 3,027 3,063 3,867 5,026 5,400 5,673 5,764   Hardwoods 688 828 1,068 1,220 1,129 1,098 1,086 938 921 920 922 Farm & Other Private Softwoods 3,548 4,419 5,337 5,998 5,339 5,033 5,335 5,741 5,743 5,741 5,782   Hardwoods 4,599 5,124 6,088 6,706 6,837 7,174 7,043 6,642 6,331 6,109 6,019 United States Softwoods 7,735 9,613 11,340 12,501 12,520 11,973 13,080 14,823 15,418 15,947 16,106   Hardwoods 6,175 7,094 8,478 9,424 9,561 9,650 9,449 8,846 8,497 8,297 8,211 1 Projections assume current public and private policies directed at forest use and management remain unchanged. Source: USDA Forest Service 1995a.

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--> TABLE A-23 Budget history of State and Private Forestry, USDA Forest Service, 1992-1996 (million dollars) Program 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Forest Health Management           Cooperative & Federal Forest Health Management 57.2 55.3 50.8 49.3 32.9 Cooperative Lands Fire Management 16.6 16.9 17.1 13.7 17.0 Total 73.8 72.2 67.9 63.0 49.9 Cooperative Forestry Programs           Economic Action 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.2 4.7 Forestry Assistance1 10.7 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 Forest Legacy 4.9 9.9 6.9 0.0 3.0 Forest Stewardship 23.9 23.3 25.8 25.9 23.4 Pacific Northwest Assistance 0.0 0.0 16.4 17.1 16.0 Rural Forestry Assistance 9.4 9.5 10.3 10.8 9.8 Special Projects1 15.4 10.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 Stewardship Incentives 0.8 17.8 17.9 18.3 4.5 Urban Forestry 23.8 24.7 27.0 28.3 25.5 Total 88.9 98.6 109.5 105.6 86.9 Total S&PF Budget 162.8 170.9 177.6 168.6 136.8 1 These two programs provided for a wide range of forestry assistance not available through other programs. Source: Unpublished USDA Forest Service data. Columns may not sum to totals due to rounding.

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--> TABLE A-24 Federal programs designed to provide financial assistance for forest-related activities, by region, federal FY 1993 (dollars) Region Agricultural Conservation Program1 Forestry Incentives Program Stewardship Incentives Program Tree Assistance Program Total Assistance North Central 1,720,596 714,311 1,200,712 59,352 3,694,971 Northeast 620,470 517,903 1,710,048 58,852 2,907,273 Pacific Northwest 1,759,198 804,911 733,320 49,659 3,347,088 Pacific Southwest 54,069 114,323 210,749 619,339 998,480 Rocky Mountain 36,242 152,484 856,724 84,096 1,129,546 South Central 2,503,360 4,563,877 1,898,726 1,243,587 10,209,550 Southeast 3,476,674 5,062,103 1,223,743 90,834 9,853,354 Other 9,408 18,240 0 0 27,648 Total 10,170,609 11,929,912 7,834,022 2,205,719 32,140,262 1 Cost share funds for forest tree plantations, forest tree stand improvement, and site preparation for natural regeneration. Sources: USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service 1994a, 1994b, and 1994c; USDA Forest Service 1994d.

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--> TABLE A-25 Forestry program expenditures by state governments, by region, 1994 (thousands of dollars) Region Fire Management State Forests Cooperative Forestry Utilization and Marketing Insects and Disease Urban and Community RC&D and PL-5561 ASCS Programs2 Nursery Forest Recreation3 Other Expenditures Total Expenditures North Central 24,834 26,927 12,208 1,902 2,612 7,995 143 1,605 9,121 3,225 22,227 112,799 Northeast 22,688 6,397 7,902 1,594 2,038 5,203 330 520 1,698 3,455 8,738 60,563 Other 394 96 303 0 21 639 0 0 170 543 2,972 5,138 Pacific Northwest 62,735 46,731 3,854 242 290 1,603 22 188 3,749 1,650 37,214 158,277 Pacific Southwest 340,602 3,568 225 35 1,291 2,373 34 108 1,206 257 26,757 376,455 Rocky Mountain 35,293 9,577 5,612 135 1,458 4,622 584 88 4,431 12 12,501 74,312 South Central 71,926 5,793 20,140 798 3,928 5,115 358 4,939 6,984 240 6,507 126,727 Southeast 85,585 2,731 26,540 528 2,519 2,880 339 2,290 9,336 1,329 31,960 166,035 Total 644,056 101,819 76,783 5,235 14,157 30,429 1,810 9,736 36,694 10,710 148,875 1,080,304 Note: Columns and rows may not sum due to rounding. 1 Resources conservation and development and watershed programs. 2 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service programs. 3 In some states expenditures for recreation may be included in the total for state forests. Source: National Association of State Foresters 1995.

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--> TABLE A-26 Finances of state forestry agencies, by region and source of support, 1994 (thousands of dollars) Region Federal Government State Government Other Government Revenue Private Other Total North Central 10,899 83,206 5,201 32,743 86 3,277 135,412 Northeast 10,294 44,456 541 5,640 272 648 61,851 Pacific Northwest 8,482 38,410 11,717 64,742 300 60,595 184,246 Pacific Southwest 11,022 257,862 12,022 14,122 0 87,230 382,258 Rocky Mountain 9,284 34,783 11,098 10,195 4,428 6,668 76,456 South Central 15,964 76,762 11,303 19,978 300 2,187 126,494 Southeast 15,865 125,802 5,965 7,405 1,135 716 156,888 Other 1,170 8,128 75 412 19 0 9,804 Total 81,810 661,281 57,847 154,825 6,521 161,321 1,123,605   Source: National Association of State Foresters 1995.

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--> TABLE A-27 State government programs focused on major private forestry activities by activity, region, and type of program, 1992   Number of States in Region Having Program Type Major Forestry Activity and Type of Program Northeast Lake States Mid- Atlantic Mid- Continent Southeast South Central Great Plains Rocky Mountain West Total Protect Water Quality                     Educational Programs 6 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 6 46 Technical Assistance 6 3 7 5 5 5 5 6 5 47 Voluntary Guideline 5 3 6 4 5 5 1 4 1 34 Tax Incentives 1 1 4 3 0 1 3 1 0 14 Fiscal Incentives 2 3 5 3 1 4 5 4 2 29 Regulatory Programs 6 1 5 1 4 1 0 2 6 26 Promote Reforestation                     Educational Programs 6 3 6 5 6 5 4 5 6 46 Technical Assistance 6 3 6 5 6 5 5 6 4 46 Voluntary Guidelines 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 4 1 15 Tax Incentives 2 3 3 3 1 1 0 1 2 16 Fiscal Incentives 5 2 5 3 4 5 5 5 3 39 Regulatory Programs 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 6 14 Improve Timber Harvesting Methods                     Educational Programs 6 3 6 5 5 4 5 5 6 45 Technical Assistance 6 3 7 5 6 5 5 6 4 47 Voluntary Guidelines 4 2 6 1 3 3 2 4 2 27 Tax Incentives 2 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 9 Fiscal Incentives 3 0 4 0 0 1 2 2 1 13 Regulatory Programs 4 0 4 0 1 1 0 1 6 16

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--> Protect from Wildfire, Insects and Diseases   Educational Programs 6 3 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 47 Technical Assistance 6 3 7 4 6 5 4 6 6 48 Voluntary Guidelines 3 0 3 1 2 3 2 4 2 20 Tax Incentives 0 1 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 Fiscal Incentives 1 1 4 2 1 0 2 4 2 17 Regulatory Programs 5 2 3 1 3 2 1 4 6 27 Protect Wildlife and Rare and Endangered Species   Educational Programs 6 3 7 5 6 5 4 5 5 46 Technical Assistance 5 3 6 5 6 5 5 5 4 45 Voluntary Guidelines 4 1 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 18 Tax Incentives 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 Fiscal Incentives 3 2 5 3 2 4 5 2 2 28 Regulatory Programs 4 2 2 0 3 1 1 2 5 20 Enhance Recreation and Aesthetic Qualities   Educational Programs 6 3 6 4 5 5 4 5 3 42 Technical Assistance 6 3 7 5 5 5 5 6 3 45 Voluntary Guidelines 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 16 Tax Incentives 1 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 8 Fiscal Incentives 4 1 6 2 2 4 2 3 1 25 Regulatory Programs 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 8 Note: Northeast—Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont; Lake States—Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin; Mid-Atlantic—Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia; Mid-Continent—Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio; Southeast—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina; South Central—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas; Great Plains—Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota; Rocky Mountain—Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming; West—Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington. Source: Ellefson, Cheng and Moulton 1995.

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--> TABLE A-28 Summary of research on variables affecting the decisions by private, nonindustrial forest landowners to plant trees in the United States   Price Interest rate Researcher Sawtimber Pulpwood Reforest costs Cost share Tax incentives Technical assistance Short Long Income Farm occupation Size Alig (1986) 0     +         +     Brooks (1985) 0   - +               Cohen (1983) +   0 +       0       de Steiguer (1984) 0           0   +     Hyberg & Holthausen (1989) +   - +   0     0 0 0 Romm and others (1987)                 +     Royer (1987) 0 0 - +   +     + 0 0 Royer & Moulton (1987) 0 0 0 + + +     + 0   Royer & Vasievich (1987) 0 0 - +         + 0   Note: Variables tested and significant are represented by (+) and (-); those tested and insignificant are represented by (0). Source: Alig et. al. 1990.

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--> TABLE A-29 Effectiveness of state forestry programs focused on private forestry activities as judged by program managers, by activity and program type, 1992   Rating of Program Effectivenessa Forestry Activity or Objective Educational Programs Technical Assistance Voluntary Guidelines Tax Incentives Fiscal Incentives Regulatory Programs Protect Water Quality 3.70 4.68 3.14 2.98 3.85 3.08 Promote Reforestation 3.59 4.54 2.29 3.64 4.53 2.60 Improve Timber Harvesting Methods 3.96 4.58 2.82 3.58 3.64 2.74 Protect from Wildfire, Insects and Diseases 4.25 4.74 2.87 2.78 3.08 3.67 Protect Wildlife and Endangered Species 4.55 4.43 2.86 2.77 3.24 3.22 Enhance Recreation and Aesthetics 4.44 4.72 3.06 3.22 3.83 1.94 Mean Rank 4.08 4.61 2.84 3.16 3.69 2.87 a Effectiveness ratings assigned by program managers using an ordinal scale of 1 = very ineffective; 6 = very effective. Source: Ellefson et al. 1995.