against which specific management regimens can be evaluated for their known or expected effects on the sustainability of the multiple resources of forests. In the absence of absolute measurements, various indicators have been proposed, so that relative sustainability from forest management can be scored for each criterion. Various sets of criteria and indicators for sustainable-forest management have been proposed. They range in applicability from national and international management levels (ITTO 1992, CSA 1994, UNCED 1995) to local forest-management units and operations. When the criteria and indicators are formalized through on-the-ground documentation and monitoring of specific local management operations, this market-driven process has become known as "forest certification," "green certification," "ecolabeling," or other synonymous terms (Viana et al. 1996).

Approaches to certification of local forest-management operations also range in specificity and scope, from the more narrowly applied Sustainable Forestry Initiative, a self-certification program adopted by the U.S. forest industry (American Forest and Paper Association 1994), to the more detailed and broadly applied voluntary certification programs of numerous nongovernmental organizations that offer independent, third-party verification and monitoring (Elliott and Donovan 1996). Most of the latter adhere to the principles and criteria for sustainable forest management derived by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC 1994), an international nongovernmental and nonprofit accrediting organization. There is no universally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators, and there might never be, given the various motivations for their derivation.



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