• political, and ecosystem characteristics of the area. Regional centers would be responsible for the sustainable management and use of regional forests. A management board would provide direction. Appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, the board would be composed of representatives of state and federal government, private landowners, organizations, and other interests that are especially important to a region. The board would be responsible for the development of a regional plan that would guide the preparation and presentation of budget requests to the federal government (to one or more agencies). The requests would be consistent with regional interests but would accommodate national concerns as well. The federal government would implement its policy for nonfederal forests through the regional centers. A board would be supported by modest staff (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 1996).
  • Landscape Coordination Councils. Other names for this example are ecosystem coordination councils and habitat coordination councils. In various parts of the country, organizations have developed that attempt to address problems that exist at the landscape ecosystem level (Lee and Black 1993). These attempts to address landscape-level issues face considerable barriers and these organizations have little recognition within either federal or state governmental structures (Williams and Ellefson 1996). Landscape coordination councils are a potential way for the federal government to work more effectively with these and other formally organized public and private organizations. Designating a council might involve a two-step process; namely, interested groups determining whether they meet a series of threshold tests that would qualify them as a council; and having met those qualifications, becoming eligible for federal support.
  • Private Cooperatives. Cooperatives composed of owners and patrons also represent a potential structure for nonfederal-forest owners to interface with the federal government. Forestry cooperatives are widely used in European countries, often being the principal means by which the national government channels cost-share and technical assistance to nonindustrial private-forest owners (Grayson 1993). Interested parties could organize a voluntary forest cooperative (or association of woodland owners) that would provide services to members, including technical and financial assistance to encourage coordination of land use and management practices among owners of forest property that is part of a larger forested landscape. As in European countries, the federal government could channel financial and technical support to nonfederal-forest owners via cooperatives. By participating in a cooperative, landowners would be able to gain access to services that are not available to them individually (Demspey and Markeson 1969).
  • Public and Private Landowner Partnerships. Public and private partnerships composed of landowners (federal and nonfederal) are another possible approach for regional interfacing with the federal government. Landowners could coordinate the implementation of environmental and forest resource polices and programs across ownerships. To ensure commitment to a partnership,


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