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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control References CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW Billings, C.E. 1996a. Aviation Automation: The Search for a Human-Centered Approach . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1996b. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 1(4):261–270. Cooper, G.E., M.D. White, and J.K. Lauber, eds. 1980. Resource Management on the Flight Deck: Proceedings of a NASA/Industry Workshop held at San Francisco, California, June 26–28, 1979 (NASA Conference Publication No. 2120). Diehl, A.E. 1991. The effectiveness of training programs in preventing aircrew ''error." Pp. 640–655 in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, R. Jensen, ed. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University. Eckhardt, D.E., W.H. Bryant, R.M. Hueschen, and D.C. Foyle 1996. Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations for NASA's Terminal Area Productivity Program. Information Paper 4. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) All Weather Operations Panel (AWOP) Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) Subgroup Meeting, Atlanta, GA, January. Federal Aviation Administration 1996. Aviation System Capital Investment Plan. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration. Fischhoff, B. 1982. Debiasing. In Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases , D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Foushee, H.C. 1984. Dyads and triads at 35,000 ft.: Factors affecting group processes and aircrew performance. American Psychologist 39:885–893.

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Luffsey, W.S. 1990. How to Become an FAA Air Traffic Controller. New York: Random House. Mellone, V.J., and S.M. Frank 1993. Behavioral impact of TCAS II on the National Air Traffic Control System. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, R. Jensen, ed. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University. Monan, W.P. 1987. Cleared for the Visual Approach: Human Factors Problems in Air Carrier Operations . NASA Contractor Report 166573 (September). Murphy, M. 1980. Analysis of eighty-four commercial aviation incidents: Implications for a resource management approach to crew training. Proceedings of the Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium. IEEE. Planzer, N., and M. Jenny 1995. Managing the evolution to free flight. Journal of Air Traffic Control March:18–20. Sarter, N., and D.D. Woods 1995. "Strong, Silent, and Out-of-the-Loop": Properties of Advanced (Cockpit) Automation and Their Impact on Human-Automation Interaction . Technical Report CSEL 95-TR-01. Columbus, OH: Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory, Ohio State University. Stix, G. 1994. Aging airways. Scientific American May:96–104. U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment 1988. Federal Research and Technology for Aviation. OTA-SET-610. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Wiener, E.L. 1977. Controlled flight into terrain accidents: system-induced errors. Human Factors 19:171–181. 1989. Human Factors of Advanced Technology (Glass Cockpit) Aircraft . Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1995. Opening remarks on debate on automation and safety. Presented at the Annual meeting of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, CA. Wiener. E.L., and R.E. Curry 1980. Flight deck automation: promises and problems. Ergonomics 23(10), 995–1011. CHAPTER 2: TASKS IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Cheaney, E.S., and C.E. Billings 1981. Application of the epidemiological model in studying human error in aviation. 1980 Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems Conference . NASA CP 2170. Federal Aviation Administration 1988. FAA Organization Manual. Order 1100.148B (December 6). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1989. FAA Organization—Field. Order 1100.5C (February 6). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1990. Standard Organization of Air Traffic Control Terminal Facilities . Order 1100.126F (April 13). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994. FAA reorganizes along its key lines of business. Headquarters Intercom (December 13). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Huey, B.M., and C.D. Wickens, eds. 1993. Workload Transition: Implications for Individual and Team Performance . Committee on Human Factors, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Luffsey, W.S. 1990. How to Become an Air Traffic Controller. New York: Random House. Monan, W.P., Cpt. 1986. Human Factors in Aviation Operations: The Hearback Problem (NASA Contractor Report 177398). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. Pritchett, A., and R.J. Hansman 1993. Preliminary analysis of pilot ratings of "party line" information importance. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, R. Jensen, ed. Columbus: Ohio State University CHAPTER 3: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, SELECTION, AND TRAINING Ackerman, P.L., R. Kanfer, and M. Goff 1995. Cognitive and noncognitive determinants and consequences of complex skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 4:270–304. Barrick, M.R., and M.K. Mount 1991. The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology 44:1–26. Borman, W.C., J.W. Hedge, and M.A. Hanson 1992. Criterion Development in the SACHA Project: Toward Accurate Measurement of ATCS Performance. Institute Report #222. Prepared by Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc. Broach, D., and J. Brecht-Clark 1994. Validation of the Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist Pre-Training Screen. DOT/FAA/AM-94/4. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Buckley, E.P., W.F. O'Connor, and T. Beebe 1969. A Comparative Analysis of Individual and System Performance Indices for the Air Traffic Control System. (NA-69-40; RD-69-50; Government accession #710795). Atlantic City, NJ: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center, Systems Research and Development Service. Buckley, E.P., B.D. DeBaryshe, N. Hitchner, and P. Kohn 1983. Methods and Measurements in Real-Time Air Traffic Control System Simulation. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Cattell, R.B., H.W. Eber, and M.M. Tatsuoka 1970. Handbook for the 16PF. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Aptitude Testing (IPAT). Collins, W.E., L.G. Nye, and C.A. Manning 1990. Studies of Poststrike Air Traffic Control Specialist Trainees: III. Changes in Demographic Characteristics of Academy Entrants and Biodemographic Predictors of Success in Air Traffic Controller Selection and Academy Screening. DOT/FAA/AM- 90/4. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Della Rocca, P., C.A. Manning, and H. Wing 1990. Selection of Air Traffic Controllers for Automated Systems: Applications from Current Research. DOT/FAA/AM-90/13. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Druckman, D., and R. Bjork, eds. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance . Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Federal Aviation Administration 1995. 3120.4H Air Traffic Technical Training. Prepared by Air Traffic Program Management. Greeno, J.G., D.R. Smith, and J.L. Moore 1993. Transfer of situated learning. Pp. 99–167 in Transfer on Trial: Intelligence, Cognition, and Instruction, D.K. Detterman and R.J. Sternberg, eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Hedge, J.W., W.C. Borman, M.A. Hanson, G.W. Carter, and L.C. Nelson 1993. Progress Toward Development of ATCS Performance Criterion Measures. Institute Report #235. Prepared for Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc. Knerr, C.M., J.E. Morrison, R.J. Mumaw, D.J. Stein, P.J. Sticha, R.G. Hoffman, D.M. Buede, and D.M. Holding 1987. Simulation-Based Research in Part-Task Training. AF HRL-TR-86-12, AD-B107 293. Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, TX . Lave, J., and E. Wenger 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Lewis, M. 1978. Use of the Occupational Knowledge Test to Assign Extra Credit in Selection of Air Traffic Controllers. FAA Office of Aviation Report No. FAA-AM-78-7, 1978. Manning, C.A., and D. Broach 1992. Identifying Ability Requirements for Operators of Future Automated Air Traffic Control Systems. DOT/FAA/AM-92/26. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Manning, C.A., P.S. Della Rocco, and K.D. Bryant 1989. Prediction of Success in FAA Air Traffic Control Field Training as a Function of Selection and Screening Test Performance. DOT/FAA/AM-89/6. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Manning, C.A., P.S. Kegg, and W.E. Collins 1988. Studies of Poststrike Air Traffic Control Specialist Trainees: II. Selection and Screening Programs. DOT/FAA/AM-88/ 3. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Milkovich, G.T., and A.K. Wigdor, eds., with R.F. Broderick and A.S. Mavor 1991. Pay for Performance: Evaluating Performance Appraisal and Merit Pay. Committee on Performance Appraisal for Merit Pay, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Miller, R.B. 1954. Psychological Considerations in the Design of Training Equipment. Report No. WADC-TR-54-563, AD 71202. Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Naylor, J.C. 1962. Parameters Affecting the Relative Efficiency of Part and Whole Practice Methods: A Review of the Literature. NAVTRADEVCEN 950-1, AD-275 921. U.S. Naval Training Device Center, Port Washington, N.Y. Nickels, B.J., P. Bobko, M.D. Blair, and E.L. Tartak 1995. Separation and Control Hiring Assessment: Final Job Report. Bethesda, MD: University Research Corporation. Nye, L.G., and W.E. Collins 1991. Some Personality Characteristics of Air Traffic Control Specialist Trainees: Interactions of Personality and Aptitude Test Scores with FAA Academy Success and Career Expectations. DOT/FAA/AM-91/8. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. O'Hare, D., and S.N. Roscoe 1990. Flight Deck Performance: The Human Factor. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. Patrick, J. 1992. Training: Research and Practice. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Redding, R.E., J.R. Cannon, and T.L. Seamster 1992. Expertise in air traffic control (ATC): What is it, and how can we train for it? Pp. 1326–1330 in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society . Rodgers, M.D., and D.A. Duke 1994. SATORI: situation assessment through the re-creation of incidents. Pp. 217–225 in Situational Awareness in Complex Systems, R.D. Gilson, D.J. Garland, and J.M. Koonee, eds. Florida: Embry-Riddle University Press. Schroeder, D.J., D. Broach, and W.C. Young 1993. Contribution of Personality to the Prediction of Success in Initial Air Traffic Control Specialist Training. DOT/ FAA/AM-93/4. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Sells, S.B., J.T. Dailey, and E.W. Pickrel, eds. 1984. Selection of Air Traffic Controllers. FAA-AM-84-2. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Spielberger, D.C. 1979. Preliminary Manual for the State-Trait Personality Inventory . Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Human Resources Institute. Stein, E., and R.L. Sollenberger 1996. Another look at air traffic controller performance. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society. VanDeventer, A.D., W.E. Collins, C.A. Manning, D.K. Taylor, and N.E. Baxter 1984. Studies of Poststrike Air Traffic Control Specialist Trainees: I. Age, Biographic Factors, and Selection Test Performance Related to Academy Training Success . FAA-AM-84-6. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. VanDeventer, A.D., D.K. Taylor, W.E. Collins and J.O. Boone 1983. Three Studies of Biographical Factors Associated with Success in Air Traffic Control Specialist Screening/Training at the FAA Academy . FAA-AM-83-6. Prepared for the

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Weltin, M., D. Broach, K. Goldback, and R. O'Donnel 1992. Concurrent Criterion-Related Validation of Air Traffic Control Specialist PreTraining Screen. Fairfax, VA: Aerospace Sciences, Inc. Wigdor, A.K., and Bert F. Green, Jr., eds. 1991. Performance Assessment for the Workplace. Committee on Performance of Military Personnel, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Wing, H., and C.A. Manning, eds. 1991. Selection of Air Traffic Controllers: Complexity, Requirements, and Public Interest. DOT/FAA/AM-91/9. Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. CHAPTER 4: AIRWAY FACILITIES Blanchard, R.E., and J.J. Vardaman 1994. Human Factors in Airway Facilities Maintenance: Development of a Prototype Outage Assessment Inventory. Document number DOT/FAA/AM-94/5. Office of Aviation Medicine, Civil Aeromedical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc. 1993. U.S. Department of Transportation Final Report for Airway Transportation Systems Specialists. GS-2101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994. U.S. Department of Transportation Test Phase Data Analysis Report for Airway Transportation Systems Specialist. GS-2101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration 1970. Air Traffic and Airway Facilities Responsibilities at NAS Computer-Equipped ARTCCs. Order number 1100.124, July 20. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1974. Air Traffic and Airway Facilities Responsibilities at NAS Computer-Equipped Terminal Facilities. Order number 1100.139, May 21. 1976. Airway Facilities Career Planning Program. Order number 3410.12, April 7. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1985. Airway Facilities Maintenance Technical Training Program. Order number 3000.10A, May 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991a. Airway Facilities Sector Configuration (RIS: AF 1100-1). Order number 1100.127C, May 22. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991b. Airway Facilities Technical Inspection Program. Order number 6040.6D, August 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991c. Maintenance Control Center (MCC) Operations Concept. Order number 6000.39, August 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991d. General Maintenance Handbook - Airway Facilities. Order number 6000.15B, August 15. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1992a. Airway Facilities Maintenance Personnel Certification Program. Order number 3400.3F, August 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1992b. Airway Facilities Sector Level Staffing Standard System. Order number 1380.40C, December 21. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1993a. Demographic Profiles of the Airway Facilities Work Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control 1993b. General Maintenance Handbook for Automated Logging. Order number 6000.48, December 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1993c. The GS-2101 Airway Transportation Systems Specialist. Videotape. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1993d. GS-2101 Implementation. Videotape. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994a. Airway Facilities Operational Plan for Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994b. Airway Transportation System Specialists Implementation/Conversion Document. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994c. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS), Remote Monitoring Subsystem (RMS) Requirements. Document number NAS-MD-793A. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. 1994d. National Maintenance Coordination Center: Monitoring the Heartbeat of the NAS. Produced by ASM-100. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. 1995. Classification Guide and Qualification Standard. GS-2101. CHAPTER 5: COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSIS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL Adams, M.J., Y.J. Tenney, and R.W. Pew 1995. Situation awareness and the cognitive management of complex systems. Human Factors 37(1):85–104. Ammerman, H.L., E.S. Becker, G.W. Jones, and W.K. Tobey 1987. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume I: ATC Background and Analysis Methodology (Technical Report DOT/FAA/AP-87-01). Colorado Springs, CO: Computer Technology Associates, Inc. Baddeley, A.D. 1986. Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burke-Cohen, J. 1995. Traffic control clearances. Pp. 29–38 in How To Say It and How Much: The Effect of Format and Complexity on Pilot Recall of Air Traffic Control Clearances, B.G. Kanki and O.V. Prinzo, eds. (DOT/FAA/AM-96/10). Prepared for Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal Aviation Administration . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Chi, M.T., P.J. Feltovich, and R. Glaser 1981. Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science 5:121–152. Cohen, M.S., J.T. Freeman, and B.B. Thompson 1996a. Training the naturalistic decision maker. In Naturalistic Decision Making, C. Zsambok et al., eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cohen, M.S., J.T. Freeman, and S. Wolf 1996b. Meta-recognition in time-stressed decision making: Recognizing, critiquing, and correcting. Human Factors Special Issue on Decision Making in Complex Environments. Corwin, W.H. 1991. Data link integration in commercial transport operations. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Aviation Psychology Symposium . Columbus, OH: Department of Aviation, Ohio State University.

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