Index

A

Abstract reasoning test, 64, 65

Accountability

automation and, 137-138

FAA organizational structure and, 161-162

leadership issues, 162

Advanced automation system, 215, 249

Age restrictions, 68

Air route traffic control center, 78-79, 82

responsibilities, 19-21

Air safety system enhancement team, 141

Air traffic activity data system, 156

Air Traffic Control Academy, 55

Air Traffic Control System Command Center, 21, 33

responsibilities, 49

Air traffic operations management system, 156

Air Traffic Services, 32-33, 52

in restoration of equipment, 81-82, 185-186

Air traffic teamwork enhancement, 6

curriculum, 146-147

limitations, 147-148

origins and development, 145

Air traffic workload input technique, 209

Airborne automatic conflict warning system, 235

Aircraft identification

ARTS, 38, 39-41

automation systems, 254-255

flight strips for, 36, 42

tower control resources for, 35-36

Aircraft situation display, 49

Airport design

future prospects, 22-23

limits to utilization, 22

Airport operations oversight, 33

Airport surface detection equipment, 35

Airway Facilities

acquisition and development practices, 187-188, 233

automation effects, 177-180, 195

automation trends, 178

certification activities, 76-77, 80, 183-184

consumers of services, 76

employee satisfaction in, 190-191, 196

future prospects, 179-180, 195

human factors activities in, 9-10

human factors research, 191-194



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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Index A Abstract reasoning test, 64, 65 Accountability automation and, 137-138 FAA organizational structure and, 161-162 leadership issues, 162 Advanced automation system, 215, 249 Age restrictions, 68 Air route traffic control center, 78-79, 82 responsibilities, 19-21 Air safety system enhancement team, 141 Air traffic activity data system, 156 Air Traffic Control Academy, 55 Air Traffic Control System Command Center, 21, 33 responsibilities, 49 Air traffic operations management system, 156 Air Traffic Services, 32-33, 52 in restoration of equipment, 81-82, 185-186 Air traffic teamwork enhancement, 6 curriculum, 146-147 limitations, 147-148 origins and development, 145 Air traffic workload input technique, 209 Airborne automatic conflict warning system, 235 Aircraft identification ARTS, 38, 39-41 automation systems, 254-255 flight strips for, 36, 42 tower control resources for, 35-36 Aircraft situation display, 49 Airport design future prospects, 22-23 limits to utilization, 22 Airport operations oversight, 33 Airport surface detection equipment, 35 Airway Facilities acquisition and development practices, 187-188, 233 automation effects, 177-180, 195 automation trends, 178 certification activities, 76-77, 80, 183-184 consumers of services, 76 employee satisfaction in, 190-191, 196 future prospects, 179-180, 195 human factors activities in, 9-10 human factors research, 191-194

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control   maintenance control centers, 78-79, 81, 180-181, 187, 233 monitoring and control operations, 78 organizational structure, 78-79, 82 responsibilities, 76-77, 79-80, 87, 183 restoration of equipment, 81-82, 185-186 staff demographics, 84, 88, 179, 188 staff performance evaluations, 86 staff training, 85-86, 87-88 supervisory control, 181-182 systems approach, 83-84 systems model for assessment, recruitment, and training, 194 teamwork in, 186 workload, 186-187 Airway Facilities specialists, 82 for automation, 83-84, 87, 182-183 equipment, 9-10 performance assessment, 189 responsibilities, 9, 77 staff selection, 84, 188 staffing trends, 178-179 training, 188-189 Anticipatory clearances, 203 Arrivals and departures aircraft holding procedures, 49 anticipatory clearances, 203 approach sequencing/ghosting, 260-261 challenges for TRACON controllers, 42-43 communications system for, 36-37 constraints to airport efficiency, 21-22 ground traffic management, 35, 37 peak hours, 42 prospects for improving efficiency, 22-23 radar technology, 35-36 tower control responsibilities, 34-35 track deviation alert, 259 TRACON responsibilities, 37-38 ARTS. See Automated radar terminal system Assessment and evaluation of air traffic control efficiency, 2-3, 157-158 of air traffic control safety, 2-3, 155-157 of cognitive aptitude of candidates for training, 64-67 controller checklists, 56, 57 human engineering criterion measures, 223-224 incident analysis, 201-204 monitoring of automated systems, 277 of personality characteristics of candidates for training, 67-68 physiological measures, 207-209 real-time monitoring, 56 subjective reports, 204-205 workload, 5-6, 205-210 workload drivers, 118-120 See also Performance assessment Automated radar terminal system (ARTS), 38, 253, 260 failure of, 44 team interaction effects, 149 visual display, 39-42 workload reduction, 123 Automation accomplishments, 241 accountability and, 137-138 aircraft conflict detection, 259-260 aircraft data block overlap, 256 aircraft guidance systems, 263 aircraft identification systems, 254-255 aircraft operations monitoring, 255-256 Airway Facilities activities, 177-181, 182-183 alerting devices, 258-259 approach sequencing/ghosting, 260-261 authority and autonomy in, 246-247 cockpit, 23-25, 28-29, 242, 251, 262-265, 267 for cognitive support, 178 communication technology, 256 computer assistance concept, 246 computerization and, 182-183, 195 contributors to, 251 cost-benefit analysis, 266-268 current implementation, 250-251, 288 current research, 261-265

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control   data smoothing, 254 definition, 18, 182-183, 195, 243-244 degradation of situation awareness, 278-279 efficiency goals, 250 electronic flight strips, 261-262 employee attitudes, 171-172 equipment certification, 184 FAA goals, 249-250 false alarms, 260, 263, 264, 272, 273-276 flight crew attitudes, 149-150 flight data management, 253-254 flight service stations, 51-52 flows and slots management, 261 forms of, 244 handoff system, 256 historic failures of, 28-29 human component, 241-242 human performance effects, 13, 242, 268 implications for controller selection, 68-69 implications for teamwork, 148-150 implications of, 242-243 information displays, 258 information-sharing, 139-140 interactions between factors affecting use of, 279-280 levels of, 244-246, 288 limitations, 241-242 management system for, 152 modernization and, 182-183, 195, 249 navigation aids, 257-258 need for, 248-250 new error forms in response to, 265-266, 269-270 overreliance effects, 276-278 perceived reliability, 272 pilot perspective, 23-25 preflight programming, 24 prospects, 247-248, 251 safety concerns, 17-18 safety goals, 249-250 skill degradation effects, 277-278 sources of problems, 267 track deviation signals, 259 user mistrust, 273-276 user monitoring of, 277 user trust, 271-273, 279 vigilance and, 129-130 workload effects, 122-123, 133-134, 270-271 Automation, human-centered, 12-13 definition, 18, 242 human authority in, 281-282 human empowerment in, 282-283 implementation prospects, 287-288 job satisfaction goals, 282 objectives, 280-281, 284-285 operator awareness in, 283-284 operator trust in, 283 optimal control design, 284 organizational structure for, 284 origins of, 266-267 rationale, 280, 289 supervisory architecture, 285-287 task allocation in, 281 tolerance of nonstandard behavior in, 284 vs. technology-centered, 265-266 Automation specialist. See GS-2101 automation specialist Aviation safety reporting system, 28, 156, 157, 203 C Center-TRACON automation system, 12, 221, 262 Certification and licensure air traffic control specialists, 55 Airway Facilities activities, 76-77, 80, 183-184 for full-performance-level controllers, 71 oversight, 33 service, 80 system/subsystem, 80 Civil Aeromedical Institute, 60, 66, 172 Cockpit resource management, 27 determinants of success, 143-144 future requirements, 144-145

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control implementation in air traffic control, 145 origins and development, 143 teamwork, 6 Cognitive functioning adaptive flexibility, 98-99 attention processes, 94 attentional resources, 97-98 attitude and, 8, 160-161 automation effects, 13, 24 automation support for, 178 compensation for vulnerabilities of, 4-5 controller error, 103-105, 108 for controller tasks, 92 decision-making, 96, 102-103, 107-108 demands on controllers, 4 expectancy and, 94, 99-100, 105-106 implications for system design, 105-111 implications of proposed automation, 68-69 information monitoring, 97 knowledge-based behavior, 97-98 language of incident analysis, 203-204 long-term memory processes, 95-97, 101-102, 107 management strategies, 96-97 mental models of automated devices, 204-205, 276 organizational mediators, 166 physiological correlates, 207-209 recognition of vulnerability to stress, 142-143 resource allocation, 96-97 response to external events, 92-94 screening of controller candidates, 64-67, 69 for secondary tasks, 206-207 simulator training, 73 situation awareness, 95, 100-101, 106-107 subjective assessments of controller performance, 204-205 task analysis, 92 visual sampling, 99, 105 vulnerabilities in controller tasks, 99-105 work shift rotations and, 131-132 working memory, 94-95, 100, 106 workload assessments, 206-207 workload of vigilance, 125-130 See also Decision-making processes; Information processing Collegiate training initiative, 70 Collision avoidance systems, 24, 27, 139-140, 149, 264-265, 274 Communication, interpersonal. See Interpersonal communications Communications technology between air traffic control centers, 21 automated systems, 256 datalink systems, 257 historic failures of, 25-27, 29 national flow control, 50-51 oversight, 33 responsibility for control and maintenance, 77 tower control resources, 36-37 TRACON, 43-44 verbal redundancy design, 106 Computer-oriented metering planning and advisory system, 212 Confidential human incident reporting programme, 203 Conflict management, 146-147 Consumers, 21-22 of Airway Facilities services, 76 Controller awareness and resource training, 145 Controller error data collection, 222-223 error rate, 59 examples of controller-pilot miscommunication, 138-140 generalizability of human factors studies, 201 implications for systems design, 103-104, 108 incident analysis, 201-202 information processing model, 201-202 predictive modeling, 213 reporting systems for, 203-204 research methodology, 222

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control team accountability for communications errors, 137-138 technology-centered prevention, 265-266 time on shift as risk factor, 130-131 types of, 104-105 Controller performance assessment, 57-59, 163-164 high-reliability organization context, 154 implications of automation, 242 legal liability, 164 in low workload conditions, 140 measures of, 223-225 organizational context variables, 159, 166, 175 primary-task measures, 206 recognition of vulnerability to stress, 142-143 research needs, 225 secondary-task measures, 206-207 sleep disruption effects, 131 subjective assessments, 204-205 time-on-shift effects, 130-131 vigilance effects, 125, 127-129 work-rest schedules and, 130 work shift rotations and, 131-132 workload effects, 114-116, 123-124 Controller skills adaptive flexibility, 98-99 cognitive, 4-5, 64-67, 92 cognitive vulnerabilities, 99-105 flight plan specialists, 52 implications of proposed automation, 68-69 job duties and responsibilities, 62-63 long-term memory functions for, 95-96, 101-102 personal qualities, 67-68 replacement of striking controllers in 1981, 54 for safety-efficiency balance, 23 Crew resource management, 138 introduction of, 27 origins and development, 143 research findings, 142-143 Critical incident technique, 221 Current air traffic control system Airway Facilities operations, 9-10, 179 automation implementation, 250-251 baseline system, 30-31 communications within, 21 compatibility with new technology, 248-249 controller aptitude tests, 64-67 efficiency goals, 22-23 equipment variation, 177-178, 180-181 error rate, 59 flight service stations, 51-52 flow control, 48-51 future challenges, 153, 248 human factors activities in, 31 human factors design in, 231-235 job satisfaction in, 168-171 management model, 153-155 modeling techniques, 213-214 national flow control, 48-51 operations, 19-21 organizational functioning, 7-8, 52-53, 153-155 regional differences, 32, 53 reliability, 2 safety goals, 21-22 significant events in development of, 25-30 stakeholders, 152-153 stressors, 1, 17 training of controllers, 3, 55 work-rest schedules, 130, 131 work schedules, 6 workload, 5, 34 D Datalink, 149 goals, 257 modeling responses, 214 operational implications, 257 Decision-making processes automation support for, 178 collaborative process, 103 controller vulnerabilities, 102-103, 107-108

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control recognition of vulnerability to stress, 142-143 system design considerations, 108 team leadership, 142, 155 training considerations, 108 See also Cognitive functioning; Information processing Deregulation, 27-28 Design process consideration of local conditions, 239 error-tolerant approach, 103-104 estimates of reliability, 18-19 FAA guide, 187-188 human-centered, 12-13 implications of cognitive vulnerabilities, 105-109 information resources, 10-11 prototyping, 215-216, 238-239, 240 real-time simulations in, 217-218 recommendations, 11-12 regional differences, 234 sequential experimentation protocol, 238-239 teamwork considerations, 148-149 technology-centered approach, 265-266 top-down approach, 239-240 user-centered, 266 user participation, 236-239, 240 See also Human factors design; Systems acquisition and development Developmental controllers, 55, 60, 70 performance reviews, 57-58 Digital brite, radar indicator tower equipment (DBRITE), 35-36 Disciplinary action, 164 Dynamic simulation, 71, 73-74 E Efficiency air traffic control system goals, 21-23 aircraft holding procedures, 49 assessment and evaluation, 2-3, 157-158 automation goals, 249-250 definition, 157 demand for services and, 158 indicators, 157 monetary measures, 158 obstacles to, 22 pilot perspective, 23 policies and procedures, 159-161 prospects for improving, 22-23 safety and, 21-22, 159-160 Employee attitude survey, 8, 168-172, 176, 190-191 En route controllers assessment, 56 cognitive skills, 4 in FAA organizational structure, 32, 33-34 flight data processing, 253 information resources, 45-46 nonradar areas management, 45 operations, 45 radar resources, 46 responsibilities, 19-21, 45 safety standards, 45 simulation training, 73 staff design, 45 TRACON control and, 48 traffic management activities, 46-48 training program, 70, 71 use of flight strips, 46 Enhanced target generator, 73, 74 Envelope protection, 246-247 Equipment failures employee attitudes, 171-172 human factors in, 191-192 responsibility for restoration, 81-82, 185-186 small, 185 TRACON response, 44 Equipment maintenance and control automation of, 80, 180-181 centralized monitoring and control system, 78 certification procedures, 80, 183-184 conceptual trends, 178 human factors research, 192

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control maintenance control centers for, 78-79, 180-181 responsibility for, 76-77, 183 restoration to service, 81-82, 185-186 workload, 186-187 See also Equipment failures Expectations, 94, 105-106 effects on perception, 99-100 Eye movement, 208 F FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration Facility flight check, 156 False alarms collision avoidance system, 264 flight path conflict detection, 260 ground proximity warning, 263 mistrust of automated systems, 273 threshold setting, 273-276 user response, 272 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) acquisition and development practices, 12 in air traffic control system management model, 153-155 automation goals, 249-250 cockpit resource management policy, 144-145 constituents and interested parties, 152-153 controller selection and training, 3-4, 55 databases, 156-157, 163 employee attitude survey, 8, 176, 190-191 flight routing policy, 23, 30 future challenges, 153 human factors design guide, 187-188, 195-196 human factors management, 9, 172-174, 176, 232 human factors policy, 173, 231-235 human factors research, 10, 192-194 job satisfaction in, 168-171 labor-management relations, 164-166 mission, 152, 153 organizational functioning, 7-8 organizational structure, 32-34, 52, 161-163 personnel policies, 163-166, 176 promotion of team training, 6-7 proposed acquisition reforms, 234-235 safety/efficiency assessments, 2-3, 158 safety/efficiency policies and procedures, 159-161 system design philosophy, 2 Feedback control, 244 Field research applications, 220-221 combined research, 222 limitations, 222 validity, 223 Final approach spacing tool, 212 Flight data input/output computer system, 37, 38 Flight deck operations automation, 23-25, 242, 251, 262-265, 267 historic failures of, 28-29 leadership style, 142 preflight programming, 24 team training for, 143-145 See also Pilot behavior Flight level monitoring, 255 Flight management system (FMS), 263 mode confusion, 269-270 principles of operation, 23-24 Flight plans automated conflict detection, 259-260 automated guidance, 263 automated monitoring, 253-254 daily planning for central flow control, 49 en route adjustments, 47-48 flight service station services, 51-52 HOST system identification, 45-46 routing policy, 23, 30 specialists, 52 tower control responsibilities, 35 visual displays, 121 Flight service stations, 33-34 automated systems, 51-52

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control number of, 51, 52 reform plans, 52 responsibility for equipment, 77 services of, 51 Flight strips, 36, 42, 46, 53, 253-254 electronic, 261-262 Flow control central decision-making, 50-51 daily operations, 49-50 determinants of, 48 goals, 48 local/sectoral decision-making, 49-50 resources for, 49 techniques, 49 Full-performance-level controllers, 55, 60 requirements, 71 responsibilities, 56 G Ghosting, 260-261 Global positioning system, 258 Great circle route, 23 Ground controllers responsibilities, 19, 35 See also Tower controllers Ground proximity warning system, 27, 263 Ground traffic flow control, 49 management pressures, 37 pilot-controller communications, 121 responsibility for, 35 GS-2101 automation specialist, 10, 83-84, 87, 183, 186, 188-189, 196 H Handoff communications, 21, 35, 36-37, 256 procedure, 43-44 TRACON responsibilities, 37 Hear back problem, 99-100 High-reliability organizations, 154-155, 167 HOST computer system, 45-46, 49, 51, 77 team interaction effects, 149 Human-centered automation. See Automation, human-centered Human factors activities in Airway Facilities, 9-10, 191-194 costs of automation, 268 in current air traffic control system, 31 FAA management of, 9, 172-175, 176, 232 FAA policy, 173 historic failures of air traffic control system, 25-30 incident analysis, 201-202 modeling, 210, 214 in organizational functioning, 160 research goals, 18 research methodology, 31 research simulations, 218 strategies for research, 10-11, 198-199 training considerations, 144 Human factors design for Airway Facilities equipment, 187-188 combining research data for, 222-223 contributions of, 228-229, 240 current implementation, 231-235 field studies for, 220 generalizability of research, 200-201, 224 goals, 2 guidelines, 187-188, 195-196 historical development, 227-229 human-machine interface, 187, 219-220 knowledge base, 10-11, 199-200, 228 limitations of research, 200-201 measurement issues, 223-225 modeling techniques for, 210 modes of, 226-227 opportunities for improvement, 110-111 procurement practices, 229-230, 240 professional development, 230-231 prototyping, 215-216 rationale, 227, 228 research literature, 199-200, 201

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control trade-offs, 109 user participation in, 215 See also Automation, human-centered; Human factors activities I Incident analysis, 201-202, 222 Information management for central flow control, 49-50 data collection for incident analysis, 202 data collection for modeling, 214 data collection in simulations, 219-220 at en route centers, 45-46 flight data, 253-254 in human-centered automation, 283-284 human factors research needs, 10-11 individual reporting behavior, 157 measurement in complex systems, 223-225 monitoring activities, 97 pilot-controller interface, 149 responsibility for equipment, 77 safety data collection systems, 156-157, 163, 203-204 videotaped records, 205 Information processing causes of operator error, 201-202 controller actions, 92-94 controller error, 103-105 demands on controllers, 92 design considerations, 109-110 long-term memory, 95-97, 101-102 working memory functions, 94-95, 100 See also Cognitive functioning; Decision-making processes Integrated product teams, 234 Interpersonal communications air traffic teamwork enhancement program, 146-147 automation effects, 148-150 challenges for TRACON controllers, 43 controller vulnerabilities, 101 cultural differences, 138-139 employee satisfaction and, 8, 170, 190, 191 examples of controller-pilot interface, 138-140 field studies, 220-221 group process model, 136-137 hear back problem, 99-100 implications of datalink systems, 257 implications of proposed automation, 68-69 individual vs. team accountability, 137-138 leadership style, 142 limits of working memory, 106 nonlinguistic cues, 107 organizational context, 163, 166-167 power relations in, 139 readback, 43 shared assumptions/knowledge in, 101, 139-140, 149 as source of operator error, 202 system redundancy, 106 team-related research, 140-143 for teamwork, 6 visual displays and, 149 willingness to challenge decisions of others, 143, 170 as workload factors, 121 See also Communications technology J Job Performance Measurement project, 62 Job satisfaction, 8, 168-171, 176, 190-191, 196 L Labor relations, 164-166 Leadership accountability, 162 adaptive flexibility, 155 in high-stress situations, 155 styles, 142 team preferences, 142 See also Management

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Legal issues controller liability, 164 equipment certification, 184 Line oriented flight training, 144, 145, 148 Local controllers responsibilities, 19, 35 See also Tower controllers M Maintenance control centers, 78-79, 81, 180-181, 187, 233 Management acceptance of new technology, 236 air traffic control system management model, 153-155 assessment for decision-making, 56-59 credibility, 160-161 employee attitudes, 8 of equipment and systems, 181-182 FAA human factors activities, 9, 172-174 FAA labor relations, 164-166 FAA organizational structure, 32-34, 161-163 for implementation of automation, 152 implications of Airway Facilities employee survey, 190-191 organizational responsibilities, 158 See also Leadership Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT), 230, 231 Military controllers, 21, 70 Minimum safe altitude warning, 27, 38, 42, 259 Model I Full Capacity, 51 Modeling analytic, 211 applications, 210-212 challenges to, 212-213 complexity of, 212-213 current practice, 213-214 data sources, 214 for error prediction, 213 fast-time vs. real-time, 212 of human factors, 213 limitations, 214 for operational support, 212 outputs, 211 for policy analysis, 211 for product acquisition and development, 12 research needs, 225 research value, 210 safety-efficiency interactions, 175 workload effects, 116-118 See also Simulators/simulations Modernization, 18, 249 Multiplex controller aptitude test, 64, 65, 66, 69 Mutual design and implementation, 238 N NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), 209 National Air Traffic Controllers Association, 164-166 National airspace information monitoring system, 156 National airspace system, 79, 82 National airspace system performance analysis capability, 213 National airspace system simulation model, 213 National data airspace interchange network, 51 National Maintenance Coordination Center, 81 National route plan, 23 Navigations technology automation, 257-258 oversight, 33 New technology for airport efficiency, 22-23 for Airway Facilities operations, 9 challenges to system-wide introduction, 53 controller training for, 71-72 employee attitudes, 171, 191 FAA research and development structure, 33

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control lack of integration, 177-178, 180-181, 187, 195, 233 organizational functioning and, 8, 174-175 simulation testing, 218 terminology, 18 trends, 178 user acceptance, 235-236, 273-276 user participation in design and implementation, 236-239 O Occupational knowledge test, 64 Office of Technology Assessment, 161-163 Operational control centers, 178, 193 Operations network, 156 Organizational functioning/structure acceptance of new technology, 235-236 adaptive flexibility, 155 air traffic control system management model, 153-155 Airway Facilities, 78-79, 82 communications policy, 163 communications style, 166-167 controller performance and, 159, 175 current air traffic control system, 52-53 determinants of, 7 effects of, 7-8 employee satisfaction with, 8, 168-171 FAA structure, 32-34, 161-163 formal context, 158 high-reliability organization, 154-155, 167 for human-centered automation, 284 human factors in, 160 implementation of teamwork concepts, 144 incident analysis, 202 informal context variables, 166-172, 175-176 introduction of new technology, 8, 174-175 management responsibilities, 158 managing human factors activities within FAA, 9, 172-174 as organizational culture, 7 research needs, 8 response to communication of problems, 167 safety outcomes and, 156 subcultures, 167-168 team performance in air traffic control, 135-137 Overseas flights, 21 nonradar areas, 45 P Perceptual functioning, 69 design considerations, 110 determinants of, 94 display overload, 120-121 expectation effects, 99-100 hear back problem, 99-100 situation awareness, 95, 100-101 visual sampling, 99, 105 Performance assessment Airway Facilities technician, 84, 86, 189 checklists, 57-58 controller, 3-4 controller selection and training, 55 crew resource management, 142-143 current research efforts, 63, 193-194 employee satisfaction with, 170-171, 191 goals for training program, 74-75 implications of automation, 68-69 for management decision-making, 56-59 minority sensitivity, 63 models for, 3 objective measures for, 58 operational assessment program, 56-57 selection criteria, 60-63 simulators for, 58-59 strategies for research, 10-11 for teams, 163-164 Performance-preference dissociations, 216

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Personality traits, 67-68 Physical plant, 77 Physiological stress measurement, 207-209 Pilot behavior controller communications, 121 examples of controller-pilot interface, 138-140 modeling techniques, 214 overreliance on automation, 276-278 recognition of vulnerability to stress, 142-143 TRACON communications, 43 See also Flight deck operations Plan view display radar, 46, 120-121 Preflight actions, 24 Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization, 70 Prototyping applications, 215, 216 limitations, 216 for product acquisition and development, 11, 12, 238-239, 240 research needs, 225 Q Quality through partnership process, 165-166, 170 R Radar, 229 en route center resources, 46 en route traffic control, 45 nonradar areas, 45 responsibility for equipment, 77 tower control resources, 35-36 TRACON resources, 38-42 training, 70, 71 vigilance effects on use of, 127-128 visual display, 39-42 visual sampling, 99 Radar positive control system, 25 Radio telephony, 121 Regional differences, 32, 53 design implications, 234 obstacles to performance assessment, 58, 59 as organizational subculture, 167-168 in simulations, 59 Reliability of air traffic control system, 2 definition, 18 measures of, 18 problems in estimating, 18-19 trust and, 19 Remote monitoring subsystem, 78 Research methodology, 31 combining data sources, 222-223 data collection for incident analysis, 202, 203-204 efficiency measures, 157 field studies, 220-222 generalizability of human factors studies, 200-201, 224 for human error research, 222-223 human factors literature, 199-200, 201 incident analysis, 201-202 limitations of human factors studies, 201 measurement in complex systems, 223-225 modeling techniques, 210-214 needs for air traffic control research, 225 prototyping, 215-216 real-time simulation, 216-220 requirements, 197 resources for, 197 safety analysis, 157 strategies for human factors studies, 198-199 teamwork studies, 137 use of subjective assessments, 204-205 validity, 197-198, 223-225 for workload assessment, 205-210 Retirement of Airways Facilities employees, 10, 84, 88, 179

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control S Safe Skies for Tomorrow, 161-163 Safety air traffic control system goals, 21-22 analytical procedures, 157 assessment, 2-3 automation goals, 249-250 concerns about automation, 17-18 cost-effective risk assessment, 159 data sources, 156-157, 163, 203-204 efficiency and, 159-160 high-reliability organizations for, 154-155 historic failures of air traffic control system, 25-30 indicators in air traffic control, 155-156 organizational risk factors, 156 performance assessments and, 164 policies and procedures, 159-161 predictive modeling, 175, 213 pressures for efficiency and, 21-22 separation between aircraft, 21 workload considerations, 133 Security, 33 Separation and control hiring assessment program, 62 Separation between aircraft, 21 approach sequencing/ghosting, 260-261 challenges for controllers, 37-38 en route standards, 45 need for automation, 248 in nonradar areas, 45 technology introduction, 235 TRACON responsibilities, 37-38 TRACON standards, 37 wake vortices, 22, 42 Sequential experimentation protocol, 238-239 SIMMOD, 213 Simulators/simulations applications, 217-218 combined research, 222-223 constraints on data collection, 219-220 for controller assessment, 58-59 current research, 73-74 for design process, 217-218 dynamic, 71, 73-74 fast-time, 212 features, 211 fidelity of, 73, 218-219 for human factors research, 218 with local features, 59 part-task training, 73 rationale, 216-217 recommendations for utilization, 11 regional air traffic control system, 217 research applications, 211 research needs, 225 for training, 4, 70, 73, 148 validity, 223 See also Modeling Situation assessment through re-creation of incidents, 4, 120 Situation awareness, 95, 100-101, 106-107, 140 overreliance on automation, 278-279 Sleep loss, 131 Social learning theory, 72-73 Stacking aircraft, 22 Staff design Airway Facilities, 82-84, 188 en route center, 45 flexibility in, 44 flight service stations, 52 replacement of striking controllers in 1981, 54 TRACON, 44 Strike of 1981 outcomes, 28 replacement workers, 54, 67 Subjective assessments in design prototyping, 216 limitations, 205 performance-preference dissociations, 216 research value, 204-205 for workload assessment, 209-210 Subjective workload assessment technique, 209

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Surveillance technology oversight, 33 TRACON resources, 38 System maintenance control center, 79 Systems acquisition and development, 11-12 for Airways Facilities, 187-188, 233 controller training, 71-72 FAA human factors policy, 173 FAA organizational structure for, 33 human factors research support for, 173, 174 incorporation of human factors in, 12, 229-230, 240 maintenance of predecessor designs, 233 performance-preference dissociations, 216 proposed reforms for FAA, 234-235 standardization in, 181 user participation in, 12, 236-239 workload certification, 116 T Teamwork accountability, 137-138 in air traffic control system, 135-136 air traffic teamwork enhancement program, 145-148 in Airway Facilities, 186 automation effects, 148-150 communication for, 6 crew resource management, 142-143 determinants of, 136 examples of controller-pilot communications, 138-140 flight deck, 143-145 group process model, 136-137 high workload strategies, 141 for human factors design, 227-228 leadership style, 142 low workload conditions, 140 performance assessment, 163-164 research activities, 137, 186 research findings, 140-143 significance of, 135, 150 strategies for improving, 6-7, 150-151 subcultures, 136 team members, 135 training for, 141, 142 Terminal airspace simulation facility, 218 Terminal radar control area (TRACON) cognitive skills of controllers, 4 communications system, 43-44 crisis management, 44 en route control and, 48 equipment failures, 44 in FAA organizational structure, 32, 33-34 obstacles to traffic management, 42-43 physical environment, 44 radar resources, 38-42, 53 responsibilities, 19, 34-35, 37-38, 286 staffing, 44 use of flight strips, 38-42 Textbooks, 199-200 Time-line analysis, 117 Total Airport and Airspace Modeler, 213 Total systems design, 228 Tower controllers communications system, 36-37 in FAA organizational structure, 32, 33-34 responsibilities, 19, 34-35, 286 simulation training, 73 use of flight strips, 36 visual resources, 35-36, 53 TRACON. See Terminal radar control area Traffic alert and collision avoidance system, 24, 264-265 controller-pilot interface and, 139-140, 149 introduction of, 27 Traffic management advisor, 213, 221 Traffic management coordinators, 49 Train for success philosophy, 70 Training of Airway Facilities technicians, 85-86, 87-88, 178-179, 188-189 Training of controllers, 176 age limitations, 68

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control assessment methodology for, 55-56 attrition rate, 66 cognitive screening of candidates for, 64-67 conceptual approach, 70 controller performance related to, 72 course of, 69-70, 71 current practice, 3, 55 current research efforts, 70 current tracking data, 60 decision making, 108 detection tasks in vigilance, 126 goals, 55, 74-75 job-related criteria, 3-4 length of, 71 memory functions, 102, 107 for new equipment, 71-72 opportunities for improvement, 110 performance measures as selection criteria, 60 personal characteristics of trainees, 67-68 prior experience requirements, 70 for radar operations, 70, 71 selection goals, 63 simulators for, 4, 70, 71, 73, 148 situated learning model, 72-73 sources of candidates, 70 subtask training, 73 team for, 70-71 for teamwork, 6-7, 141, 142, 148, 150 Trust, 18, 19 in automation, 271-277, 279 in equipment certification process, 184 false alarm effects, 273-276 human-centered automation objective, 283 management credibility with employees, 160-161 as organizational variable, 171-172 U User-centered design, 266 V VHF omnidirectional range, 45 Vigilance air traffic control and, 127-129 arousal and, 126-127 current understanding, 125, 126-127 definition, 125 implications for automation, 129-130 task factors influencing, 125-126, 133 training effects, 126 workload effects, 127, 133 Visual display aircraft data block overlap, 256 aircraft flight level, 255 aircraft heading and speed, 255-256 aircraft situation, 49 approach sequencing/ghosting, 260-261 compatibility with cognitive processes, 204-205 data smoothing, 254 datalink systems, 257 effects on interpersonal communication, 149 flight path, 121 in human-centered automation, 283-284 informational scope, 258 radar, 39-42, 46 workload factor, 120-121 Visual sampling, 99, 105 Voice switching and control system, 18-19 W Wake vortices, 22 individual differences in aircraft, 42 Weather challenges for TRACON controllers, 42-43 constraints to airport efficiency, 22 flight services station services, 51-52 Work schedules controller performance and, 130-133

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Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control current practice, 6, 130, 131, 133 night shift work, 131 potential problem areas, 48 shift changes, 48 shift rotations, 131-132, 133 sleep disruption effects, 131 time on shift as risk factor for error, 130-131 Workload adaptive strategies, 115, 117-118 airspace load effects, 118-120 in Airway Facilities, 186-187 allocation of cognitive resources, 96-98 assessment measures, 205-206 assessment models, 5-6 automation effects, 122-123,133-134, 268, 270-271 communications factors, 121 controller performance and, 114-116, 123-124 definitions, 113-114 display factors, 120-121 drivers, 115, 118 extremes of, 5 interaction of factors in, 115, 133 modeling techniques, 214 multitask performance theories, 117, 122 as performance factor, 5 physiological measures, 207-209 primary-task measures, 206 research trends, 113 safety and, 133 secondary-task measures, 206-207 significance of, 5, 112-113 situation awareness and, 100-101, 140 subjective measures, 209-210 system trends, 34 system variation, 113 task load vs. mental workload, 124 team strategies, 141 theoretical models, 114, 116-118 time-line analysis, 117 underload conditions, 112-113, 115, 124, 133, 140, 202 of vigilance, 127-130, 133