Index

A

ABM. See Averting behavior model

Absolute ownership, 107

Acceptable risk, 118

Agricultural uses, 15, 17, 27, 69, 113, 130-131, 140-141.

See also Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution

AGU. See American Geophysical Union

AGWSE. See Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers

Air stripping, 43

Allocation of ground water, 1-2, 51-57, 106-114

laws regulating, 10, 105-113

American Geophysical Union (AGU), 124

American Water Resource Association (AWRA), 124

Appropriation doctrine. See Regulatory measures

Aquifers, 21, 31-36, 169.

See also individual aquifers

capacity of, 169

confined, 33-35, 39, 170

deep, 3, 34, 45

as managed storage facilities, 21, 146

recharge capability of, 26 (See also Recharge)

as three-dimensional, 32

transmissivity of, 170

unconfined, 33-35, 39, 172

Arizona, 40, 109-113, 147

Ground Water Management Act of 1980, 113-114, 154, 157

Tucson, 12, 128, 130, 153-163

Asset value. See Stock value

Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (AGWSE), 124

Averting behavior model (ABM), 7, 9, 75-79, 87-90, 169

AWRA. See American Water Resource Association

B

Bacterial contaminants. See Pathogenic microbes

Base flow, 32, 169

Basins, 31-32, 169

benefits of, 36

Benefit-cost analysis (BCA), 56, 65, 106, 114, 120, 169

Benefits, 169

direct versus indirect (See Service flows)

Bequest value (BV), 98, 170.

See also Intergenerational equity

Best management practices (BMPs), 117



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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches Index A ABM. See Averting behavior model Absolute ownership, 107 Acceptable risk, 118 Agricultural uses, 15, 17, 27, 69, 113, 130-131, 140-141. See also Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution AGU. See American Geophysical Union AGWSE. See Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers Air stripping, 43 Allocation of ground water, 1-2, 51-57, 106-114 laws regulating, 10, 105-113 American Geophysical Union (AGU), 124 American Water Resource Association (AWRA), 124 Appropriation doctrine. See Regulatory measures Aquifers, 21, 31-36, 169. See also individual aquifers capacity of, 169 confined, 33-35, 39, 170 deep, 3, 34, 45 as managed storage facilities, 21, 146 recharge capability of, 26 (See also Recharge) as three-dimensional, 32 transmissivity of, 170 unconfined, 33-35, 39, 172 Arizona, 40, 109-113, 147 Ground Water Management Act of 1980, 113-114, 154, 157 Tucson, 12, 128, 130, 153-163 Asset value. See Stock value Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers (AGWSE), 124 Averting behavior model (ABM), 7, 9, 75-79, 87-90, 169 AWRA. See American Water Resource Association B Bacterial contaminants. See Pathogenic microbes Base flow, 32, 169 Basins, 31-32, 169 benefits of, 36 Benefit-cost analysis (BCA), 56, 65, 106, 114, 120, 169 Benefits, 169 direct versus indirect (See Service flows) Bequest value (BV), 98, 170. See also Intergenerational equity Best management practices (BMPs), 117

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches Bioeconomic assessment, 28 Bioremediation, 43 Brackish reject concentrate. See Reverse osmosis Buffer value, 2, 21, 60, 77, 139, 141, 146, 159-162, 170 Bush, President George, 11 BV. See Bequest value C California, 21, 39, 109-111 Arvin-Edison, 12, 128-129, 140-142 Orange County, 12, 128-129, 142-148 San Joaquin Valley, 39 Capture, law of, 4, 37, 113, 171 Case studies, 12, 127-165. See also specific states lessons learned, 164-165 summarized, 127-130 CERCLA. See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Chlorinated hydrocarbons. See Organic contaminants Clean Water Act (CWA), 10, 114, 116-117 Clinton, President William, 11 Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 116 COI. See Cost of illness method Colorado, 112 Command-and-control approaches, 10 Commerce Department. See U.S. Department of Commerce Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Alternatives, 26 Commodity prices, 57 Common law doctrines, 106-111 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1, 10, 44, 115, 149 Computer capacity, inadequate, 45 Cone of depression, 35, 109-110, 170 Confined aquifer. See Aquifer Conjoint analysis. See Contingent valuation method (CVM) Conjunctive use, 35-36, 111 Conservation efforts, 15, 39 little incentive for, 37 Consumers, basis of valuation, 49-50 Consumptive use, 170 Contamination, 4, 41-42. See also Hazardous waste contamination; Hydrologic cycle, anthropogenic modifications of; Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs); and specific contaminants containing, 44 filtering out, 2, 35 laws regulating, 10 protecting against, 15, 17, 116-117 Contingent valuation method (CVM), 6-9, 27-28, 69, 76, 82-87, 90-100, 170 cautions about using, 83-85 questionnaire, sample of, 84, 174-176 Corps of Engineers, 124 Correlative rights, 107-108 Cost-benefit analysis. See Benefit-cost analysis (BCA) Cost of illness (COI) method, 7, 9, 75, 78 Costs, 14, 25-26, 31, 35, 37, 74-77, 160, 170 dynamic, 72 of water treatment, 42-44, 118-119 Current use value. See Use value CVM. See Contingent valuation method CWA. See Clean Water Act CZMA. See Coastal Zone Management Act D Deep aquifers. See Aquifers Deep-well injection, 42 Defense Department. See U.S. Department of Defense Depletion, 32-35 Depression. See Cone of depression Derived demand method. See Costs Dealination, low pressure. See Nanofiltration Direct approaches, 28, 82-86, 90-99, 170 Discharge. See Depletion Discounting, 5-6, 54-56, 65-66, 170. See also Future value (FV); Risk premiums Disposal options, 42 Disutility, measuring. See Contingent valuation method (CVM) Diversity. See Wildlife habitat Double counting errors, 8, 20, 99 Drawdown, 139, 170 Drought, 4, 38. See also Buffer value Dynamic price, 71-73

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches E Eastern correlative rights. See Correlative rights Ecological diversity. See Wildlife habitat Economics of environmental resources, 2, 4, 65, 68-86 history of, 68-70, 123 methods for, 73-86 Economics of ground water use, 37-40, 57 analyzing, 60-65 current knowledge of, 86-99 Edwards Aquifer, 112 Effluent, treated, 21, 155 Energy Department. See U.S. Department of Energy Environmental economics. See Economics of environmental resources; Economics of ground water use Environmental Protection Agency, 1-2, 9-11, 17, 28, 90, 100, 114-119, 123-125 Environmental quality. See Quality of ground water; Willingness to accept (WTA); Willingness to pay (WTP) Estimating implicit prices. See Hedonic price method (HPM) EV. See Existence value Evaporation ponds, 42 Executive Orders, 10-11, 119 Existence value (EV), 85-86, 98, 132, 162, 170 Exploitation. See Open access resource; Optimal time rate of use Extractive costs. See Costs Extractive rights, 11, 37 Extractive uses, 58-59 history of, 14-19 Extractive value, 2, 8, 17, 20, 62-63, 164, 170 Exxon Valdez oil spill, 86 F Fairness issues, 56-57 Farm policies, 57. See also Policy-making Fecal material. See Pathogenic microbes Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 116 Flood flows, 21 Florida, 21, 39, 111, 113 Flow value, 20 Fossil water. See Aquifers, deep Free-rider behavior errors, 83 Fuel hydrocarbons. See Organic contaminants Future value (FV), 70-71, 105, 171 G Global cycles, 32 Gross benefits. See Benefit-cost analysis (BCA) Ground water, 58-60. See also Allocation of ground water; Economics of ground water use; Quality of ground water; Value of ground water balance of, 32-35, 52 defined, 169 dependence on, 21 flow diagram, 49, 62-65 managing, 65 rights, 121-122 saline (See Intrusion of sea water) Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment, 64 H Habitat value, 162-163 Habitats aquatic, 38 riparian, 137-139, 164, 172 wildlife (See Wildlife habitats) Hazardous waste contamination, 26. See also Superfund sites Health-based regulation, 118-119, 164 Hedonic price method (HPM), 9, 69, 75-76, 79-81, 161-162, 171 HPM. See Hedonic price method Human health perspectives. See Health-based regulation Hydraulic conductivity, 33-35, 170 Hydrocarbons. See Organic contaminants Hydroelectric uses, 15 Hydrologic cycle, 31-36 anthropogenic modifications of, 32-33, 41-42, 57, 62 Hydrologic uncertainty, 44-45 Hydrostatic pressure. See Potentiometric surface I Illness, cost of. See Cost of illness (COI) Implicit prices, estimating. See Hedonic price method (HPM) Incremental value, 160-161, 171 Indirect approaches, 7, 9, 27-28, 74-81, 87-90, 171 Infinite value, 1

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches In situ services, 17, 20, 63, 159, 171 defined, 2, 60 In situ value, 2, 63 Institutions, decision-making by, 51-55, 154-156 Integrated plan. See Conjunctive use Interactions. See Conjunctive use Interdisciplinary study, 165 Interflow, 32 Intergenerational equity, 5, 56, 171 Interior Department. See U.S. Department of the Interior Intertemporal optimization, 48, 162 Intrusion of sea water, 2, 21, 39-40, 60, 142-145 Ion exchange, 43 Irreversibility, 171 Irrigation uses, 15 Israel, 77 K Knowledge of respondents, presumed, 94 L Land subsidence. See Subsidence of land surface Land use planning, 17 Law of capture. See Capture Legal considerations, 10, 121-122 Long-term view, 4, 6, 46 M Management practices. See Best management practices (BMPs); Ground water; Watersheds; Wildlife habitats Mandates. See Unfunded mandates Marginal user cost. See Opportunity costs Marginal value, 171 Market value, 6, 13-14, 76, 171. See also Water marketing Massachusetts Boston, 87-90 Woburn, 12, 128-130, 149-153 Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), 114-115, 157 MCLs. See Maximum contaminant levels Measurements, imprecise, 45 Membrane filtration. See Nanofiltration; Reverse osmosis Model uncertainty, 45 Municipal water use, 77, 137, 142, 146-148 N Nanofiltration, 156-158, 171 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 8, 82, 86, 124 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 26, 28-29, 44 National Science Foundation, 123 National Water Research Institute, 2 Natural assets, 48, 54-55 Natural discharge, 171 Natural recharge. See Aquifers, deep Natural resource damage assessment (NRDA), 86 Natural resource districts (NRDs), 111 Natural resource valuation. See Economics of environmental resources Nebraska, 110-111 Negotiated transactions value. See Market value Neoclassical welfare economics. See Welfare economics Nevada, 110, 147 New Mexico, 34, 112 Albuquerque, 12, 128-129, 136-140 Nitrate contaminants, 92, 130-131 NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nonmarket value, 8, 27, 54, 69, 74-86, 171 Nonorganic contaminants. See Nitrate contaminants Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, 32, 116-117, 171 Nonrenewable resource. See Safe yield Nonuse value, 6-9, 17, 20, 49-50, 98-99, 171 estimating, 28, 69, 85-86 NPS. See Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution NRC. See National Research Council NRDA. See Natural resource damage assessment NRDs. See Natural resource districts O Ocean discharge, 42 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 120

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches Ogallala aquifer, 34, 45, 110 Oil Pollution Control Act of 1990, 86 Oklahoma, 34 OMB. See Office of Management and Budget Open access resource, 4, 37, 171 Opportunity costs, 56, 78, 161 Optimal time rate of use, 71-72 Option value, 92, 171-172 Oregon, Treasure Valley, 12, 128-132 Organic contaminants, 41, 43, 79, 149 Osmotic processes. See Reverse osmosis Overdrafting, 4, 38-39, 45, 137, 172 P PAHs. See Organic contaminants Parasites. See Pathogenic microbes Passive use value. See Nonuse value Pathogenic microbes, 41, 158 Payment vehicle, 96-97 Pennsylvania, 87-90 Laurel Ridge, 12, 128-129, 133-136 Percolation. See Recharge Permeability. See Hydraulic conductivity Permits. See Regulatory measures Phenols. See Organic contaminants Phthalates. See Organic contaminants Piezometric surface. See Potentiometric surface Point source pollution, 15, 57, 114-115 Policy-making, 5, 8, 14, 24. See also Water marketing; Welfare economics changing priorities, 118-121 Pollution. See Contamination; Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution; Point source pollution Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). See Organic contaminants Pore water pressure, 170 Potentiometric surface, 33-35, 172 Prescriptive rights, 109 Present value, 55, 172 Presumed knowledge. See Knowledge of respondents, presumed Price elasticity, 77 Production costs. See Costs Property rights, 121-122 Property values. See Hedonic price method (HPM) Protozoan contaminants. See Pathogenic microbes Public perceptions, 26, 59, 90, 95-97, 174-175 Public policy. See Policy-making Pumping rate. See Aquifers, transmissivity of; Cone of depression Pumping technology, 15, 37 Pump taxes. See Taxes, pump Q Quality of ground water, 10, 24-26, 40-45, 53. See also Contamination; Remediating ground water effect on value, 58, 161 protecting, 114-118 Quantity of ground water. See Ground water, balance of Quotas, 5, 38, 46 R Rainfall, 62-63 Rate of time preference, 172 RCRA. See Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Reagan, President Ronald, 10, 119 Reasonable use, 107, 109 Recharge, 32-35, 122, 159-160, 172. See also Aquifers, deep; Safe yield rate of, 3, 33 Recommendations, 45-46, 66, 100, 125. See also Research needed Recreational value, 2, 59, 134, 172. See also Travel cost method Recycling, 15. See also Remediating ground water Reducing Risk, 1, 122 Regulatory impact assessments (RIAs), 119-121, 172 Regulatory measures, 108-111. See also Quotas; Taxes, pump Remediating ground water, 25, 172. See also Bioremediation; Effluent, treated; Restoration laws regulating, 10 Renovating ground water. See Remediating ground water Research needed, 9, 11, 46, 122-124 Resource allocation. See Allocation Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 10, 44, 115 Resource units, 169 Restoration, 4-5, 44-45

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches Revealed preferences approaches. See Indirect approaches Reverse osmosis, 43, 156-158, 172 RIAs. See Regulatory impact assessments Rights. See Correlative rights; Extractive rights; Ground water rights; Prescriptive rights; Property rights Riparian habitats. See Habitats, riparian Risk assessment, 8, 106, 114, 120. See also Acceptable risk Risk premiums, 8 Riverine habitats. See Habitats, riparian Runoff. See Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution S SAB. See Science Advisory Board Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 10, 17, 114-115, 117, 120, 133 Safety of public water supplies perceptions of (See Public perceptions) willingness to pay for, 175-176 Safe yield, 35, 136, 139, 154 Salt water intrusion. See Intrusion of sea water Sampling errors, 45 SARA. See Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Scarcity, 56 Science Advisory Board (SAB), 1 SDWA. See Safe Drinking Water Act Semipermeable membrane. See Reverse osmosis Service flows, 49, 62-65, 172 changes in, 36, 47, 160-161 potential, 21-24 Shortages, buffering. See Buffer value Silvicultural use. See Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution Starting point bias, 83-84 Statistical errors, 45 Steady-state equilibrium, 4, 36, 38 Stochastic modeling, 165 Stock value, 20 Subsidence of land surface, 2-3, 21, 38, 138, 154 disruptions caused by, 39, 60, 161 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), 10, 117, 149 Superfund laws, 11, 17, 106. See also Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Superfund sites, 44, 117-118, 149-152 Supply development, 26, 156 Supply disruptions. See Buffer value Surface water, 21, 33. See also Value of surface water flow reductions in, 39-40 Surfical aquifers. See Aquifers, unconfined Surrogate measures, 3 Survey-based techniques. See Contingent valuation method (CVM) Sustainable yield. See Safe yield T Takings, 121-122 Taxes, pump, 5, 38, 46 TCE. See Trichloroethylene TCM. See Travel cost method TDS. See Total dissolved solids Technology-based regulation, 119. See also Treatment technologies TEV. See Total economic value Texas, 34, 111 Houston/Baytown region, 39 San Antonio, 112 Time-dependent benefit or cost. See Dynamic price; Future value (FV); Intertemporal optimization; Present value Total dissolved solids (TDS), 158, 161 Total economic value (TEV), 2-12, 48-50, 63-65, 100, 112, 123-125, 150, 164, 172 Transaction value. See Market value Transferring water rights. See Water marketing Transfer value, 9, 11 Travel cost method (TCM), 27, 69, 75, 81, 172 Treatment technologies, 42-43 Trichloroethylene (TCE), 149, 151-152 U Uncertainty, 95, 151-153, 163. See also Hydrologic uncertainty Unconfined aquifer. See Aquifer Underground storage tanks (USTs), 10, 115 Unfunded mandates, 11, 120 Unfunded Mandates Act of 1995, 120-121 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 156 U.S. Constitution, 121 U.S. Department of Commerce, 86 U.S. Department of Defense, 2, 17, 123

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Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches U.S. Department of Energy, 2, 17, 123 U.S. Department of the Interior, 118 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), 137 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 15, 124, 137 Use conflicts, 134 Use value, 6-7, 11, 17, 20, 172-173 USGS. See U.S. Geological Survey USTs. See Underground storage tanks V Validity issues, 8 Valuation framework, 5-6, 47-67. See also Total economic value (TEV) Valuation of natural resources. See Economics of environmental resources Value. See also Transfer value Value of ground water. See also Bequest value (BV); Buffer value; Existence value (EV); Extractive value; Flow value; Future value (FV); Habitat value; Incremental value; Infinite value; In situ value; Marginal value; Market value; Nonmarket value; Nonuse value; Option value; Present value; Recreational value; Stock value; Total economic value (TEV); Use value alternative methods, 25 defined, 1, 64, 173 history of, 13-28 taxonomies of, 17, 20, 49, 59-60, 173 Value of surface water, 14 Viral contaminants. See Pathogenic microbes Volatile organic contaminants. See Organic contaminants W Waivers, 114 Waste disposal sites. See also Hazardous waste contamination laws regulating, 10 Water marketing, 10, 112-113 Water protection district, 175-176 Water quality, sources of information about, 175-176 Water rights. See Ground water, rights Watersheds, 31-32, 169 managing, 35 Water table. See Potentiometric surface Welfare economics, 74, 171, 173 Well drilling, laws regulating, 24 Wellhead protection (WHP) programs, 17, 117 Well interference conflicts, 109-110 Western correlative rights. See Correlative rights WHP. See Wellhead protection (WHP) programs Wildlife habitats destruction of, 25 diversity of, 2 managing, 21, 61 Willingness to accept (WTA), 6-7, 74, 82, 173 Willingness to pay (WTP), 6-7, 31, 40, 74-75, 78-82, 93, 173 meaningless estimates of, 85 Withdrawals. See Extractive uses WTA. See Willingness to accept WTP. See Willingness to pay Y Yea saying bias, 84 Yield. See Safe yield Z Zoning, 117