been eliminated by overpumping. Because the ground water processes that affect ecosystems and base stream flow are not well understood, combined hydrologic/ecologic research should be pursued to clarify these connections and better define the extent to which changes in ground water quality or quantity contribute to changes in ecologic values.

  • Ground water management entities should consider appropriate policies such as pump taxes or quotas to ensure that cost of using the water now rather than later is accurately accounted for by competing pumpers.

  • Because ground water resources are finite, decision-makers should take a long-term view in all decisions regarding valuation and use of the resources.

REFERENCES

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Anderson, M. G., and T. P. Burt. 1985. Hydrologic Forecasting. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Atkinson, S. F., G. D. Miller, D. S. Curry, and S. D. Lee. 1986. Salt Water Intrusion: Status and Potential in the Contiguous United States. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers.


Burness, H. S., and W. E. Martin. 1988. Management of a tributary aquifer. Water Resources Research 5(24):1339-1344.

Burt, O. R. 1970. Groundwater storage control under institutional restrictions. Water Resources Research 6(6):1540-1548.


Cummings, R. G. 1970. Some extensions of the economic theory of exhaustible resources. Western Journal of Economics 7(3):201-210.


Domenico, P. A., and F. W. Schwartz. 1990. Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.


Fetter, C. W. 1994. Applied Hydrogeology. New York: Macmillan College Publishing.

Frederick, K. D. 1995. America's water supply: Status and prospects for the future. Consequences 1(1):14-23.


Heath, R. C. 1983. Basic ground-water hydrology. Water-Supply Paper 2220. U. S. Geological Survey.


Lloyd, J. W., and M. H. Farag. 1978. Fossil ground water gradients in and regional sedimentary basins. Ground Water 16:388-398.


Morel-Seytoux, H. J. 1985. Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Pp. 35-67 In Artificial Recharge of Ground Water. T. Asano, ed. Chapter 3. Boston: Butterworths Publishers.


National Research Council. 1994a. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1994b. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Nether, P. A. 1990. Natural Resource Economics: Conservation and Exploitation. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Office of Technology Assessment. 1984. Protecting the Nation's Groundwater from Contamination, OTA-O-233. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress.


Provencher, B., and O. R. Burt. 1993. The externalities associated with common property exploitation of groundwater. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 24(2):139-158.


Schoek, J. M., ed. 1995. City cuts use of depleted ground water. The Ground Water Newsletter 24(12):6.



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