cohort were reported to mine on weekends, although the specific details on the amount of extra time and the exposed miners were lacking.

The impact of measurement error on radiation risk estimates was explored in the study of atomic-bomb survivors (Jablon 1971). Analyses were also conducted by Pierce and others (1990) using the Lifespan Study data. The intent was to adjust the linear dose-response estimate to account for random error in the dose estimates. The investigators assumed that errors in dose estimates were proportional to dose, and therefore worked on the logarithm scale for dose. Using a lognormal error distribution and a plausible estimate of error of about 30%, the authors found that the adjusted dose-response estimate was about 5 to 15% greater than if account was not taken of exposure error.

This appendix brings together information on exposure estimates made for the miners in the epidemiologic studies and related work on error in these estimates. One annex to the chapter describes the basis for the exposure estimates in each of the studies. An additional annex provides the proceedings of a workshop convened by the committee on exposure estimates; valuable insights were gained from participants who were extremely knowledgeable on the history of the U.S. and Canadian uranium mining industries and consequently the BEIR VI committee has included the proceedings in its report.

ESTIMATION OF EXPOSURES OF MINERS TO RADON PROGENY

Published descriptions of the mines that are the basis of the epidemiologic studies indicate that the sources of radon included the ore being mined, air flowing into the areas where miners were working, and radon-containing water in the mines (NRC 1988; Lubin and others 1994a). Under the circumstances of mine operation, it is likely that concentrations of radon and progeny varied spatially and temporally within a particular mine, although little data have been published that document such variation. In the New Mexico mines, for example, information presented at the committee's workshop on dosimetry documented extensive variation in concentrations of radon progeny across various locations within mines in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico (Table E-1). Thus, exposure estimates for individual miners would be ideally based on either a personal dosimeter, as used for low-LET occupational exposures, or on detailed information on concentrations at all locations in mines where participants in the studies received exposure (SENES 1989). For the participants, information would be needed on the locations where time was spent, the duration of time spent in the locations, and the concentrations in the locations when the miners were present. A miner might have spent time in a number of different locations during a typical working day including the stope (the area where mining actually takes place), the haulage way leading to the stope, and perhaps a separate lunch area. Personal dosimeters for radon progeny have not been developed until recently and their usage has been



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